Introduction to HVAC Systems

During the past week we’ve talked about challenges, improvements and development of HVAC technology. But taking a step back, what is a HVAC system? Heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems and refrigeration (or known as HVAC&R) is a technology developed to manipulate environment temperature and air quality. The applications of such technology are based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.

HVAC Intro
Source

Commonly HVAC systems are grouped into four main systems starting with the heating and air conditioning split system, which is the most ordinary implementation of residential applications encompassing both inside and outside installations. The application, which can be controlled with a central thermostat, consists of air conditioning system which cools the refrigerant to drop the temperature, and heating system which involves gas furnaces. Ducts used to circulate the adjusted air from both heating and conditioning, with the help of evaporator/fan coils – a terminal unit which is used to provide heating or cooling to the targeted space.

A split system is known for its simplicity, efficiency and low cost.  That being said, the second type (hybrid heat split system) is actually found to benefit over the first one from an energy efficiency standpoint since the application utilizes heat pump systems. With the incorporation of heat pumps, the system is able to pump cooled or heated refrigerant to make both system able to be controlled through electric power. The heat pump is used to move energy using outside surrounding air as an air source for heating and heat sink for refrigeration/conditioning systems.

A duct free split system would benefit the most to be installed at locales where conventional ducts cannot fit or are not directly connected to central control thermostats. No ductwork would be needed in the system, thus enabling flexibility of delivering air directly to the targeted zones. Since the technology allows you to directly zone the cooled air, using ductless technology could improve efficiency, lower operation cost and reduce carbon footprints.

The last system to note is the packaged heating and air conditioning system – which is normally the system that is installed at locales where there is not enough spaces available for  the components of the split system. A package unit has a heating and cooling system combined into one unit,  making it easier to access for maintenance as well as to be conservative on installation space.

References:

http://www.command-air.com/blog/benefits-of-a-packaged-hvac-system/

https://www.servicechampions.net/what-are-the-different-types-of-hvac-systems/

http://www.mitsubishicomfort.com/articles/ductless/5-advantages-of-ductless-cooling-and-heating-systems

Turbomachinery Software for Education

Turbomachinery design has significantly evolved over the last two decades, as supporting education and training methods and techniques remains a challenge. Diversity of technologies covered in the varying courses and extensive use of software by industry designers makes the task of delivering the course curriculum that meets expectations of industry and students difficult. Many educational institutes and business use generic CAE tools for the purpose of learning turbomachinery through student projects. While generic tools have proven their value in research and design, the comprehensiveness of these tools to tackle real life turbomachinery situations is far from desired. The inexperience of fresh graduates from universities and colleges in their inability to perceive a 4D machinAxSTREAM EDUe (3D plus time), traditionally taught using a 2D blackboard, is evident. A student is not only required to have a very good understanding of underlying fundamentals, but is also required to address multitude of design, analysis and optimization problems within the limited time available for education. Coupling of theoretical and computer aided design knowledge to augment the capability of students to contribute to the industrial endeavor is necessary. Such a solution provides students with implicit understanding of the level of detail required by final designs, such as mean line design to the specification of a blade profile varying from hub to tip of a blade, and further complexities of iteration due to an aerodynamically correct blade profile being unsuitable because of stress levels or excitation frequencies and much more. AxSTREAM® EDU introduces multiple dimensions of design required by turbomachinery very early in the instruction process which, by using,  the students are able to develop insights that traditionally are difficult to attain in the same time frame. The use of AxSTREAM® EDU as a design software has been proven to multiply the skills of the students, enabling broad 3-D design considerations and visualization seldom possible otherwise.

AxSTREAM® EDU provides the user with the ability to design many different types of turbomachinery from scratch, such as axial turbines and compressors, radial compressors and turbines, axial fans, integrally geared compressors, mixed flow turbines and compressors and more. The moot question is how important is preliminary design? The efficiency gain possible to achieve in the preliminary design is of the order of 5-10 %, as compared to 0.5 % using 3D optimization (blade profiling, stress and CFD). One has an option of spending several weeks running  full 3D CFD calculations in generic software to try to optimize 0.5% of design, or spending much less time and resources using AxSTREAM® to figure out the best flow path design, followed by use integrated stress, CFD and rotor dynamic solvers!

Expander Configurations and Torsional Analysis

Lateral rotor-dynamic behavior is often discussed as one the critical aspects in determining the reliability and operability of rotating equipment. However, as multiple equipment are coupled together to form trains for centrifugal pumps, fans/blowers, compressors, steam or gas turbines and motors or generators, torsional behavior requires a thorough analysis. As per industry standards, torsional response is sought only for train units comprising of three or more coupled machines (excluding any gears).Blog 6

The configurations of the expanders used in the oil and gas industry makes it not only ideal but mandatory to perform train torsional analysis.  Expander trains are commonly used in CCU and FCU units and in the production of nitric acid. Serving the purpose of energy recovery, various arrangement for power recovery train are illustrated to the left:

As part of torsional analysis, the drive-train critical speeds (rotor lateral, system torsional, blading modes, and the like) need to be established to ensure they will not excite any critical speed of the machinery and the entire train is suitable for the rated speed and starting-speed hold-point requirements of the train. Finding frequency margins (torsional natural frequencies and torsional excitations) and if necessary undertaking stress analysis is mandated to demonstrate that resonances do not have  an adverse effect.RD

Such analysis requires modelling complexities of flexible supports, foundation, rotor seal interaction, instabilities etc. of the entire train and their interaction. SoftInWay’s CAE tool AxSTREAM® RotorDynamics is comprehensive, user friendly, and fully integrated with modules for flowpath and blade design making it unique to undertake train torsional analysis. Further information about the software is available by following the link

Air Conditioning in Automotive

Car AC
                          Source

While the term of air conditioning in relation to automotive might instantly correlate to a system which provides passenger with a comfortable air temperature/environment, HVAC systems also are used for heating and cooling of batteries in such application as well as cooling of the vehicle fuel systems. Thermal management for automotive application isn’t easy though. Many factors have to be accounted for in order to build a dependable cooling system.

While talking about HVAC concerns and challenges which arise in automotive application, the biggest inconvenience commonly comes down to the lack of cold air produces. Mobile refrigeration/air conditioning systems come with quite a few concerns from two sides: the refrigeration side, where it removes heat and injects cold air, and from the electrical side which provides control. From the system, the most common challenges are found in moisture –which would fail the cooling system if present in the air, soiled condenser which would block air flow, and various other mechanical complications which might occurs.

While diagnosing an air conditioning issue, especially if environment temperature seems higher than it should be, there are few conditions that can be looked into including freon leak, failed blower, damaged or failed motor, damaged condenser to the most common problem usually arises from the compressor. Compressor, compressor clutch switch, fuses, wires, fan belt and seal are at the top of the list to be check for functional adequacy. Consequently, with many concerns arising from the compressor side of the system, a good and reliable compressor design must be implemented to avoid unwanted challenges during operation. Design your automotive turbomachinery with SoftInWay! Ask us about the projects that we’ve done in this field and how our turbomachinery development code will be helpful for your automotive and HVAC design, analysis and optimization activities.

References:

http://www.doityourself.com/stry/5-common-car-air-conditioning-system-problems

http://www.aa1car.com/library/ac98.htm 

http://www.agcoauto.com/content/news/p2_articleid/256

http://blog.firestonecompleteautocare.com/ 

为潮湿气候而设计的暖通空调

Blog for HVAC system

潮湿的气候通常伴随着湿度标准的挑战。当暖通空调(加热、通风和空调调节)系统不能保持适当的湿度条件/进行湿度控制时,就会造成建筑物的损坏和缺陷。

潮湿的气候特指当环境中的空气的平均每月潜热负荷(从空气中除去水分所需的能量)与夏季冷却空气所需的平均每月能量相同或更高的情况。高潜热负荷的空气容易使水分进入建筑材料并积累在其中。

湿度的保持控制不是一件容易的事情。 暖通空调装置必须能够使用干燥过的空气来支持整个建筑物适当的加压系统。为了提供最恰当的除湿干燥程度,暖通空调系统必须能够对流过冷却盘管的空气进行除湿(这意味着必须精确选择冷却盘管的尺寸以满足外部空气和回流空气的负载)。但这不仅仅是暖通空调系统得以实现的唯一指标。系统还必须具有足够的运行时间来将室内空气中的水分去除。毕竟,在潮湿的环境中,仅有温度控制是不够的, 湿度控制总是次要考虑因素(尽管在保证给用户提供舒适问题的前提下,温度控制也是必须满足的)。

在天气潮湿的地理区域,如东南部,公共住房一般采用冷冻水的直接蒸发作为冷却系统。这需要室外冷凝器装置将室内的热量与室外空气进行交换。

Reference:

http://www.greenseal.org/Portals/0/Documents/IG/PHA%20Manuals/Chapter2_Southeast_Green_Building_OM_Manual_PHA.pdf
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01998590309509232?journalCode=uene20

Foil Air Bearings for High-Temperature Turbocharger Applications

Within the realm of turbocharging, there are a number of different design challenges that influence the design process on both large-scale marine applications and smaller-scale commercial automobile applications.  From aerodynamic loads to dynamic control systems to rotor dynamics and bearing challenges, turbochargers represent a special subset of turbomachinery that requires complex and integrated solutions.  Turbocharger rotors specifically, have unique characteristics due to the dynamics of having a heavy turbine and compressor wheel located at the overhang ends of the rotor. The majority of turbocharger rotors are supported within a couple floating-ring oil film bearings.  In general, these bearings provide the damping necessary to support the high gyroscopic moments of the impeller wheels.  However, there are several disadvantages of working with these oil systems that have allowed different technologies to start to surface for these turbomachines.  With the floating-ring oil models, varying ring speed ratios and oil viscosity changes significantly influence the performance of the rotor dynamic model.

Dan blog bearing for turbochargers
Figure 1 – Floating-Ring Bearing Model for a Turbocharger

The application of oil-free bearings have started to emanate due to the overall consistency of their performance and the minimized heat loss associated with air as the damping fluid. Studies on these bearing types for turbomachinery applications are neither trivial nor unique, as they have seen plenty of exposure within the commercial and military aircraft industries within turbo compressors and turboexpanders. However, the success of these specific applications are due to the fact that these turbomachines operate with light loads and relatively low temperatures. The main design challenges with foil air bearings are a result of poor rotor dynamic performance, material capabilities, and inadequate load capacities at high temperature/high load applications.

Foil Air Bearing
Figure 2 – Foil Air Bearing

Foil air bearings operate based on a self-acting hydrodynamic air film layer during normal operation, but they exhibit serious wear on start up and shut down if not properly attended to. Prior to developing a gas film on start up, these bearings must handle the sliding that occurs between the rotor and the inner surface of the bearings. For this reason, solid lubricants like polymer foil coatings were considered for these bearings. Polymer coatings have a serious temperature restriction which do not allow them to be considered for high-temperature applications above 300 °C. Different chrome oxide based coatings have shown greater performance at higher temperatures. Initial testing of these coatings showed significantly poor performance at lower temperatures of 25 °C and difficulties with adhesion through repeated thermal cycles. However, NASA has developed a new high temperature PS400 formulation of this coating that performs well under different load conditions and between the temperature range of 25 °C and 650 °C. Essentially, the viability of these bearings within the automotive market has become a reality with individualized bearing designs. The question now becomes whether the foil gas bearing manufacturers can penetrate the market from a larger-scale and create a standard for these turbocharger setups to run free of oil altogether. To learn more about the simulation of both floating-ring oil film bearings and foil air bearings using the SoftInWay platform, please visit: http://www.softinway.com/software-applications/bearing-design/

References:

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20000004303.pdf

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20090033769.pdf

 

Performance Simulation and Optimization of CCPP with Turbine Inlet Air Cooling

It is well established that the performance of combustion air turbines (gas turbines) is sensitive to ambient air temperature. As the ambient air temperature increases beyond standard design point  (ISASLS), the power output and exhaust gas flow rate reduces while the heat rate and exhaust gas temperature increases. While the trends are similar for heavy duty and aeroderivative gas turbines, due to the inherent nature of design the results are steeper for aeroderivatives.  Various types of turbine inlet cooling technologies such as evaporative cooling, refrigerated inlet cooling and thermal energy storage systems have been practiced with varying degree of success, each having its potential advantages and limitations.  Simplicity and cost advantage gained in evaporative cooling is offset by limitation of cooling along web bulb depression line (and is a function of site relative humidity). Refrigerated inlet cooling (direct and indirect) offer advantage of higher cooling and lesser sensitivity to site conditions, and result in greater power output with an impact on relative cost and complexity. Selection of optimum technology of turbine air inlet cooling is hence a tradeoff between competing factors.

Combined Cycle
              Combined Cycle Power Plant

The complexity of combined cycles, without any turbine inlet air cooling, poses significant challenge in design of steam system and HRSG due to competing factors such as pinch point, heat and mass flows optimization etc. Knowledge of fluid viz properties of standard air (psychrometrics), standard gas for Joule Brayton cycle, steam for bottoming Rankine cycle and refrigerant for cooling system( for refrigerated inlet air cooling) as applied to complete cycle makes the process complete as well as complex. AxCYCLE™ is one such unique tool to simulate such combined cycle processes with multi fluid-multi phase flows including refrigeration. The standard HVAC features can easily be used for inlet air cooling refrigeration and integrated into the CCPP. Once a digital representation of the complex process is replicated and successfully ‘converged’ at design point, the challenge of optimization emerges. To facilitate optimization various tools namely AxCYCLE™ Map, Quest, Plan and Case are embedded integrally. As a first cut, users based on their experience apply AxCYCLE™ Map and vary one or two parameters to see the effect of operational parameters on cycle performance. AxCYCLE™ Quest opens the gates by allowing users to vary unlimited parameters, according to quasi-random Sobol sequences. mutli-Parameter optimization tasks are possible using AxCYCLE™ Plan – it uses design of experiments concepts. Once optimized the AxCYCLE™ Case tools allows off design simulation tasks. Exhibit below represents complexity of a combined cycle plant represented conveniently:

To learn more please check out the following demos:

Cost Estimation & Economic Analysis http://learn.softinway.com/Webinar/Watch/51

Vapor Compression Refrigeration System http://learn.softinway.com/Webinar/Watch/86

Gas for Power

Gas turbines are one of the most widely-used power generating technologies, getting their name by the production of hot gas during fuel combustion, rather than the fuel itself. Today, the industry is clearly driven by the need of fast and demand-oriented power generation, thus additional effort is put in extremely short installation times, low investment costs and an enormously growing volatility in the electrical distribution in order to achieve higher levels of reliability in the power grid [2].

The majority of land based gas turbines can be assigned in two groups [3]: (1) heavy frame engines and (2) aeroderivative engines. The first ones are characterized by lower pressure ratios that do not exceed 20 and tend to be physically large. By pressure ratio, we define the ratio of the compressor discharge pressure and the inlet air pressure. On the other hand, aeroderivative engines are derived from jet engines, as the name implies, and operate at very high compression ratios that usually exceed 30. In comparison to heavy frame engines, aeroderivative engines tend to be very compact and are useful where smaller power outputs are needed. Gas turbine image

Nowadays, The increase of energy demand along with the growth of transportation market led to requirements for machines of highest efficiency (i.e. minimal fuel consumption), ability to operate in some certain range of conditions, and weight restrictions. In addition, to maintain competitiveness, it is essential to decrease the amount of time needed to complete the design cycle [4]. Most of machine’s geometrical properties are selected during preliminary design phase and remain almost unchangeable throughout next design phases, predefining its layout significantly. Therefore, the preliminary design task is the basis and the effort must be put in developing complete engineering tools to cover this task taking into account all possible aspects of a successful gas turbine design. In particular, a key advancement to the future of turbine technology is the turbine cooling of components in gas turbine engines to achieve higher turbine inlet temperatures, as increased inlet temperatures lead to better performance and higher lifespan of the turbine [5].

SoftInWay has extensive experience with gas turbine design and optimization. From our flagship software platform AxSTREAM® to AxCYCLE™ , designed for the thermodynamic simulation and heat balance calculations of heat production and electric energy cycles, to our extensive engineering consultant services, you can rest assured that all your project needs will be met by our engineering experts. The use of gas turbines for generating electricity dates back to 1939, where a simple-cycle gas turbine was designed and constructed by A. B. Brown Boveri in Baden, Switzerland, and installed in the municipal power station in Neuchâtel, Switzerland [6]. Today, SoftInWay Switzerland GmbH is located not far from Baden and allows the support of our European clients by offering consulting services, software and training for all engineers tastes. Visit our website and find out how you can take advantage of SoftInWay turbomachinery expertise.

References

[1]http://www.wartsila.com/energy/learning-center/technical-comparisons/gas-turbine-for-power-generation-introduction

[2]https://library.e.abb.com/public/ccb152e5e798b1cdc1257c5f004d64c1/DEABB%201733%2012%20en_Gas%20Turbine%20Power%20Plants.pdf

[3]https://energy.gov/fe/how-gas-turbine-power-plants-work

[4]http://softinway.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Integrated-Environment-for-Gas-Turbine-Preliminary-Design.pdf

[5]Joel Bretheim and Erik Bardy, “A Review of Power-Generating Turbomachines”, Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania 16127

[6]https://www.asme.org/about-asme/who-we-are/engineering-history/landmarks/135-neuchatel-gas-turbine