This post will examine the meshing requirements for an accurate analysis of flow characteristics in terms of turbomachinery applications, based on Marco Stelldinger et al study . Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are widely used for the analysis and the design of turbomachinery blade rows. A well-established method is the application of semi-unstructured meshes, which uses a combination of structured meshes in the radial direction and unstructured meshes in the axial as well as the tangential direction. Stelldinger’s paper presents a library for turbomachinery meshing, which enables the generation of semi-unstructured meshes for turbomachinery blade passages, including cavities, fillets and varying clearance sizes. The focus lies on the generation of a mesh that represents the real geometry as accurately as possible, while the mesh quality is preserved.
The above was achieved by using two different approaches. The first approach divides the blade passage into four parts. Inside of these parts, a structured grid is generated by solving a system of elliptic partial differential equations. The second approach is based on the domain being split into fourteen blocks. It has benefits concerning computational time towards the first one, because of a faster generation procedure as well as a faster performance of the inverse mapping.
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in turbomachinery design is getting more and more popular given the increased computational resources. For the design process, however, there is no need for extensive CFD capabilities as the effort is put on minimizing engineering time while obtaining a design which is about 90% optimized. Here we are presenting two cases where CFD is used to derive significant information for pump design.
First, the influence of the blade shape on the parameters of the single blade hydrodynamic pump was studied by Knížat et al . The investigation of the pump properties was carried out experimentally with a support of CFD methods. The accuracy of applied steady-state calculations was satisfactory for the process of design of a single blade pump, because of the good agreement between measured and calculated power curves.
Existing research studies for the corresponding flow-induced vibration analysis of centrifugal pumps are mainly carried out without considering the interaction between fluid and structure. The ignorance of fluid structure interaction (FSI) means that the energy transfer between fluid and structure is neglected. To some extent, the accuracy and reliability of unsteady flow and rotor deflection analysis should be affected by this interaction mechanism.
In recent years, more and more applications of FSI are found in the reliability research of turbomachinery. Most of them are about turbines, and a few of them address pumps. Kato  predicted the noise from a multi-stage centrifugal pump using one-way coupling method. This practical approach treats the fluid physics and the solid physics consecutively.
For the majority of pump application, the growing use of variable speed operation has increased the likelihood of resonance conditions that can cause excessive vibration levels, which can negatively impact pump performance and reliability. Mechanical resonance is the tendency of a mechanical system to absorb more energy when the frequency of its oscillations (external excitation source) matches the system’s natural frequency of vibration more than it does at other frequencies. To avoid vibration issues, potential complications must be properly addressed and mitigated during the design phase.
Some of the factors that may cause excitation of a natural frequency include rotational balance, impeller exit pressure pulsations, and gear couplings misalignment. The effect of the resonance can be determined by evaluating the pumping machinery construction. All aspects of the installation such as the discharge head, mounting structure, piping and drive system will affect lateral, torsional and structural frequencies of the pumping system. It is advised that the analysis be conducted during the initial design phase to reduce the probability of reliability problems and the time and expense associated.
What is the importance of turbulence modelling in capturing accurate 3D secondary flow and mixing losses in turbomachinery? An investigation on the effect of return channel (RCH) dimensions of a centrifugal compressor stage on the aerodynamic performance was studied to answer this question by A. Hildebrandt and F. Schilling as an effort to push turbomachinery one step further.
W. Fister was among the first to investigate the return channel flow using 3D-CFD. At that time the capability of commercial software was not extended and any computational effort was limited by the CPU-capacity. Therefore, only simplified calculations that included constant density without a turbulence model (based on the Prandtl mixing length hypothesis) embedded in in-house code, were performed.