An unsteady flow is one where the parameters change with respect to time. In general, any liquid flow is unsteady. But if a hydraulic system is working at constant boundary conditions, then the parameters of the fluid flow change slowly; thus this flow is considered steady. At the same time, if the parameters of the fluid flow oscillate over time relative to some constant value, then it called quasi-steady flow 1.
In practice, most fluid flows are steady or quasi-steady. Examples of the three flows are presented in Figure 1. Steady flow is presented by a simple pipe. The quasi-steady flow is represented by a sharpened edge channel. The unsteady flow is presented by an outflow from a reservoir.
Different Cases of Unsteady Flow
During operations, hydraulic systems act for long intervals at steady conditions which are called operating modes. Change between two different operating modes occurs over a short time interval (called a transient mode). If any hydraulic system works more than 95% of the time at these operating modes though, why is the unsteady flow is so important? Because the loads depend on time intervals. If the load is less, then the maximum system pressure is higher. Read More
The following is an excerpt from Exceptional People Magazine, conducted by Monica Davis and focused on profiling SoftInWay’s CEO, Dr. Leonid Moroz. The article appeared in the September/October 2019 issue. A link to the full interview can be found here
Turbomachinery design is critical in industries like aerospace, oil and gas, defense, and clean technology. Dr. Leonid Moroz’s company, SoftInWay Inc., also helps some of the world’s largest manufacturers of turbines, turbochargers, pumps, and fans. But Moroz is happy to explain that his company’s innovations also impact the car you drive, the vacuum cleaner you use, the air conditioning in which you work, and the electricity needed to power your mobile phone.
A lover of music and athletics as a child, Moroz knew early on that engineering held promise as a lifelong career. So he started his career as a Group Leader at TurboAtom. TurboAtom, while a state-owned entity, is one of the world’s top thermal, nuclear, and hydropower plant turbine construction companies. It’s a company that operates at the level of companies like General Electric and Siemens.
Moroz designed both gas and steam turbines during his eight years at TurboAtom. While he was there, he also earned his Ph.D. in Turbomachinery from the Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute in Ukraine.
When he founded global aerospace engineering leader SoftInWay, Inc. in 1999, he intended to assist turbomachinery manufacturers needing his expertise. What evolved from that intent has revolutionized engineering design and allowed improved efficiencies for multiple system types: Its flagship software, AxSTREAM.
AxSTREAM helps engineers develop efficient turbomachinery flow path design, redesign, analysis, and optimization. Under Moroz’ direction, AxSTREAM itself has also evolved into a design platform supporting rapid development of a new generation of liquid rocket engines.
Still a relatively small company, SoftInWay supports over 400 companies worldwide and works closely with universities, research laboratories, and government organizations. The company takes its educational responsibilities seriously, continually offering webinars, training sessions, educational blogs, and online workshops on topics like When To Upgrade Your Pump, The Pros and Cons of Wind Energy, and Radial Outflow Turbine Design.
Moroz loves to talk about his work, his company, its innovations, and his team. He’s proud to have had the same group of engineers for 30 years, so SoftInWay feels more like a family than a workplace. As the company has become a leading global R&D engineering company, it has expanded to encompass locations in Boston, Massachusetts; Zug, Switzerland; Ukraine; and India.
Yes, Moroz’ specialty is indeed a bit technical for people who aren’t in turbomachinery engineering design. But Moroz and his team clearly enjoy what they’re doing because it benefits society and makes life easier and more comfortable in myriad ways.
Next time you switch on that ShopVac or Hoover, be sure to thank Dr. Leonid Moroz.
Monica: We often take for granted how engineering plays a huge role in our daily lives. How much of the world depends on the kind of technology and engineering capabilities you produce?
Dr. Moroz: Quite substantially. For example, society produces a lot of waste and heat. If you have options, it utilizes waste and heat to produce power, or it is thrown away. We’ve helped companies to utilize this energy and to produce power to heat or cool our houses, to prepare food, and to help our businesses survive.
Another example again would be launchers design. Launchers are important for turbomachinery. A significant part of space development depends on turbomachinery inside those launchers.
It’s important to understand two directions where people can utilize turbomachinery with power consumption and power generation. Power generation is when you produce power, so we need to be more efficient, but the second part, when we get this power, we need to cool our houses, we need to cool our cars, and so on, and again, it’s turbomachinery.
You can be sure that you utilize turbomachinery to develop an air conditioning system that is efficient and is quite substantially in large buildings.
Power consumption for air conditioning is like 30 or 40 percent of the overall power consumption. Can you imagine if you were to decrease this by 10 to 20 percent? It would be a considerable saving…Read the full interview here
The oil system is an integral element of the turbine unit, which largely determines its reliability and trouble-free operation. The main purpose of the turbine lubricating oil system is to provide fluid friction in the bearings of turbines, generators, feed pumps, and gearboxes.
An oil system should provide:
– continuous supply of the required amount of oil in all modes of operation of the turbine unit, which guarantees:
– prevention of wear on friction surfaces;
– reduction of friction power losses;
– removal of heat released during friction and transmitted from the hot parts of the turbine
– maintaining the required temperature of the oil in the system; and
– cleaning the oil from contamination.
At the same time, the necessary qualities of the lubricating oil system are reliability, safety of operation, ease of maintenance.
The pressure and the temperature of the oil should be constantly monitored during operation of the turbine unit. Specifically, the lube oil temperature after the bearings requires special attention. Overheating of the bearing leads to wear of the working parts and changes in the properties of the lubricant itself. The quality of the lube oil is controlled by physicochemical characteristics such as density and viscosity. The system leaks must be stopped quickly and oil replenished on time. These factors will significantly extend the service life of the steam turbine.
Nowadays, computer simulation is a very powerful and useful tool. It helps you predict the processes occurring in the bearing chambers, and determine the flow of the working fluid when the operating modes change, all without installing expensive experimental equipment.
We suggest using the 1D-Analysis AxSTREAM NET™ tool to simulate the lubrication system. This software product allows you to quite simply, clearly and quickly build the desired model. It provides a flexible method to represent fluid path as a set of 1D elements, which easily can be connected to each other to form a thermal-fluid network. The program calculates fluid flow parameters for inlet and outlet of each element. There are many different components that allow you to simulate stationary and non-stationary modes. Also there is a convenient library of fluids. It is also possible for a user to add fluids of their choice.
The example of modeling in AxSTREAM NET™ is the system of oil supply for the K-500-240 turbine. This turbine is quite massive with bearing loads of up to 450 kN. The schematic diagram of the oil supply K-500-240-2 is shown in Figure 1.
Centrifugal Pumps are the most popular and commonly used type of pump for the transfer of any type of fluid. The volumetric flow rate range of centrifugal pumps can vary from several tens of ml/hour to one hundred thousand m3/hour , while the pressure can be normal pressure to nearly 20MPa; and the liquid temperature can be as low as -200℃ or as high as 800℃. The fluid being transferred can be water (clean or sewage), oil, acid or alkali, suspension or liquid metal, etc. Therefore, centrifugal pumps are used across numerous industries:
In the oil and gas or chemical industries, converting crude oil to products requires a complex process. Pumps play an important role in transferring these liquids, providing the required pressure and flow rate for chemical reactions. Sometimes, pumps are used to adjust temperature in certain parts of the system.
In agriculture, centrifugal pumps are used in the majority of irrigation machinery. Agriculture pumps make up half of the total amount of centrifugal pumps being used today.
In mining and metallurgy industries, centrifugal pumps are the most widely used equipment, for draining, and cooling of water supplies, etc.
For power generation, the nuclear power plants need large amounts of primary, and secondary system pumps, while the thermal power plants also need boiler feed pumps, condensate pumps, loop pumps and as well as ash pumps.
In military applications, the adjusting of airplane wings and rudders, turning of turret on ships and tanks, the up and down of submarines, all rely on pumps for hydraulic fluids.
In shipbuilding, there are more than 100 different types of pumps in one typical ocean ship.
Other applications include municipal water supplies and drainage; water supplies of locomotives; lubricating and cooling of machining equipment; bleach and dye transfer of textile industry; and milk and beverage pumping and sugar refining in the food industry.
Centrifugal pumps can be classified based on the number of impellers in the pump:
A single-stage pump, with only one impeller, is commonly used for high flow and low to moderate total dynamic head, as in Figure 1.
A multi-stage pump has two or more impellers working in a series to achieve higher total dynamic head. Read More
This might seem like a strange question, but we get ask this a lot. The question takes the form of: Can the sales side do a proper preliminary design and select the optimal machine (turbine/compressor/pump)? Is it possible for the design and application task to be integrated in a way allowing the application team the autonomy to make decisions without going back to the engineering team every time they get an inquiry? After realizing how large of a pain point this is for our clients, we decided to solve this problem for a major turbine manufacturer in Asia and in the process, provided a time-saving solution to maximize the returns for all the stakeholders.
The challenge came with the different competencies of the sales and design team. The sales/application teams are not necessarily experts in design while designers cannot double as application engineers to meet the sales requirements.
In our efforts to solve this issue, we worked with this turbine manufacturer. We listed all of their current processes, limitation, requirements, constraints, and etc. to explore the many possible ways to resolve this pain point. In the end, there were two solutions; (1) Develop custom selection software, or (2) Leverage the AxSTREAM® platform using AxSTREAM ION™.
Developing Custom Selection Software: Developing a custom selection software specific to the manufacturer where their application team can choose the optimal turbine based on expected customer needs. Developing such a custom system requires bringing together the expertise of different teams from turbomachinery (such as aero-thermal and structural) to software developer, testing, etc. Developing such a one-off system also takes considerable time at considerable cost. This approach could solve the current problem, but with rapidly changing technologies and market requirements, this is not a viable long-term solution.
Leverage the AxSTREAM® Platform using AxSTREAM ION™: We evaluated the limitation and possibilities of utilizing our turbomachinery design platform AxSTREAM® to meet the requirement of sales/application engineering team for today’s needs and in the future. We found the organization had a greater advantage using this existing platform rather than investing in the short-term solution of developing a custom selection software. Many of the building blocks required for customization are already available to use via an interface a non-technical sales person could easily use. This platform was utilized for meeting the requirement of this turbine manufacturer saving time and cost while resolving a large pain-point for the organization.
Historically turbomachinery development began with empirical rules postulated by early pioneers. With the need for jet engine for aircraft propulsion, dimensionless analysis became popular, followed by the 1 D mean line design and 2D meridional methods. Today 2D meridional methods with 3D blade to blade CFD/FEA methods are a necessity as efficiency and reliability requirements are further pushed.
One key aspect of 2D meridional design is S1-S2 optimization, which is a time consuming, laborious task and hence subject to human errors. S1-S2 optimization is a task of reviewing, adjusting and optimizing the flow path in the Tangential (S1 or blade-to-blade or pitchwise) and the Meridional (S2 or span wise) planes. The main purpose is to:
Fit the flow path to specific meridional dimensional constraints
Adjust blade-to-blade parameters while taking into account structural constraints.
Optimization (or parametric studies) of a twin spool bypass turbofan engine with mixed exhaust and a cooled turbine can be considered one of the most complex problem formulations. For engine selection, determining the thrust specific fuel consumption and specific thrust is necessary against variables such as design limitations (Inlet temp, etc.), design choices (fan pressure ration, etc.) and operating conditions (speed & altitude). The task involves cycle level studies following machine, module, stage and component level optimization. This calls for an integrated environment (IE) and it is desirable to have such an IE operating on a “single” platform.
Historically IE was developed for the design of axial turbines (mainly steam). Later, it was expanded for gas turbines (especially blade cooling calculations) and axial compressors via plug-in modules. The new challenge designers face today is developing mixed flow machinery. An effective system for modern turbomachinery design needs to do the following:
Optimizing the heat and mass flow i.e. steam balance in a plant that has several levels of steam pressures is not a simple task due to the vast array of equipment such as turbines, heat exchanges, steam auxiliaries and accessories used. The steam balance of a refinery plant is further complicated because of use of steam for chemical processes and compression. Depending on processor licensor, technologies and many other traditional factors, it is not uncommon to see steam pressure levels defined in refineries as simply HP & LP or HP,MP & LP or as complex as VHP, HHP, HP, MP and LP.
The traditional approach to designing a steam system is to install steam generators able to generate steam at the maximum pressure and temperature with enough redundancy in capacity as required by the process. Modern steam generators tend to be inclined towards higher pressure steam rather than lower pressure steam – saturated high pressure steam has higher temperature meaning less exchange surface in heat exchangers and reboilers, high density of high pressure steam requires less bore in the steam mains. Consequently, the usage of high pressure steam represents less capital expenditure. The resultant philosophy is to generate steam at the highest possible temperature and pressure, expand steam from a higher pressure to a lower pressure level through the most efficient means possible and use process at the lowest economically attractive pressure and temperature.
Turbomachinery is a core subject in many engineering curriculums. However, many graduates joining the oil and gas industry are designated as rotating equipment engineers. Though turbomachinery and rotating equipment are used synonymously, all turbomachinery are rotating equipment but not vice versa. Turbinis in Latin implies spin or whirl, and a natural question that arises is – what are the factors that differentiate turbomachinery? In a general sense the term, “rotating” covers the majority equipment used in the industry be it in the upstream, mid-stream or the downstream segment. Yet top rotating equipment specialist in the industry are seen spending their prime time or often being associated with certain unique and specific types of critical rotating machines – the turbomachines.
In a classical sense, turbomachines are devices in which energy is added into or taken out from a continuously ﬂowing ﬂuid by the dynamic action of one or more moving blade rows. By this definition propellers, wind turbines and unshrouded fans are also turbomachines but they require a separate treatment. The subject of ﬂuid mechanics, aerodynamics, thermodynamics and material mechanics of turbomachinery when limited to machines enclosed by a closely ﬁtting casing or shroud through which a measurable quantity of ﬂuid passing in unit time makes the practical linkage to rotating equipment – those which absorb power to increase the ﬂuid pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps) and those that produce power by expanding ﬂuid to a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas turbines). Further classification into axial, radial and mixed type (based on flow contour), and impulse & reaction (based on principle of energy transfer) is common. It is the large range of service requirement that leads to different type of pump (or compressor) and turbine in service.
Last week I described two ways which the turbomachinery industry addresses climate change. This week, I explain two more:
Waste Heat Recovery
Even though processes are becoming more and more efficient they are still mostly wasteful (Figure 1).
The excess energy from processes is eventually released into the environment but bringing down the temperature of the exhaust allows multiple things; direct reduction of the global warming potential as well as possibility to utilize this heat to boil a working fluid before running it through a turbine where it can generate some power without requiring burning additional fuel. A well-known example of such a system is the traditional gas-steam cycle that allows turning a 45% efficient gas turbine cycle into a 60% system by utilizing the gas turbine exhaust heat to boil some water in a secondary loop before passing the resulting steam through a different turbine. In the same manner waste heat recovery can be applied with different fluids (including the trending refrigerants like R134a & R245fa, steam and the state-of-the-art supercritical CO2 as shown on Figure 2) and a multitude of applications; internal combustion engines, steel production plants, marine transports, etc.
Selection of the best working fluid
Whether it’s deciding to design the main energy conversion cycle or its waste heat recovery system one of the critical parameters to pay close attention to is the working fluid selection; good selection of the fluid will often lead to make a compromise between cost/availability, thermodynamic performance (see Figure 3) and environmental friendliness. One must make sure that the performances of the designed cycle with the chosen fluid are high enough and the fluid cheap enough to make the concept financially viable without sacrificing pollution considerations which can prove devastating in case of leaks.
The working fluid selection is also performed so that in addition to the environmental footprint being reduced the physical footprint is minimized as well; this is done through the selection of high density fluids (helium, SCO2, etc.) which allows for a reduction in component size and therefore cost (as portrayed on Figure 4), – indirectly it also allows for less material being produced which also “saves trees”.