A compressor unit is an important component in an air conditioning system used to remove the heat laden vapor refrigerant from the evaporator. The compressor raises the temperature and pressure of the working refrigerant fluid and transforms it to a high temperature and high pressure gas. Since the compressor is one of the most vital parts of a cooling system, to be able to have an efficient working cycle, an appropriate and optimum compressor design must be installed.
Generally, there are 5 types of compressor that can be used in HVAC installations, the most common of which being reciprocating compressors used within a smaller scale conditioning system. Reciprocating compressors utilize pistons and cylinders to compress the refrigerant and an electric motor is used to provide a rotary motion.
In recent application, scroll compressors are found to be increasingly popular as an alternative to reciprocating compressors in HVAC installation. This type of compressor outstands in the reliability and efficiency sector when compared to reciprocating compressors. Scroll compressors consist of one stationary scroll and a second moving scroll which compresses the refrigerant – giving this type of compressor fewer moving parts and thus, higher reliability and efficiency. At a smaller size, scroll compressors can achieve similar flow rates and outlet pressure when compared to reciprocating compressors.
There are different kinds of rotary compressors, the most common ones being rotary screw and rotary vane. Rotary vane compressors are known to be smaller, quieter and more reliable and are commonly used in smaller residential split system applications. The application works with a rotating shaft as the blades move around the cylinder. The other rotary compressor consists of stationary blades which are attached to the housing, used for larger applications in comparison to rotary vane compressors.
Last but not least is the centrifugal compressor. Centrifugal compressors are mostly used in industrial installations due to the ability to cool large capacity of air. No piston, valve or cylinder is incorporated in the design and it relies on centrifugal force enabling it to have very few moving parts leading to higher efficiency and reliability.
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