A number of loss prediction methods exist in turbomachines. Concerning axial turbines, there are at least seven methods just for cascade losses! But there are also loss models developed to predict individual loss components such as secondary, seal and tip clearance losses and more.
Of course depending on the machine and application type, some of the models are more or less applicable to specific cases. But ff the different types of auxiliary losses, which are losses that do not belong to blade cascades and can be classified as whole stage, there are carryover losses.