Innovative Boost of Larger Internal Combustion Engines

The last few decades have brought with them a dramatic increase in the development and use of turbochargers in automobiles, trains, boats, ships, and aircrafts. There are several reasons for this growth, including rising demand for fuel efficiency, stricter regulations on emissions, and advancements in turbomachinery design. Turbochargers are appearing more and more and are replacing superchargers.

turbocharger
Turbocharger

 

Turbochargers are not the only turbomachinery technology growing in popularity in the marine, automobile, and railroad industries. Organic Rankine Cycles are being applied to take advantage of the exhaust gas energy and boost engine power output. ORCs, a system for Waste Heat Recovery, improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle, train, or boat, and reduce specific emissions.

As the size of the engines we consider increases, there is more heat available to recuperate, and more potential WHR systems to use. For instance, we can consider different combinations of these systems with both non-turbocharged and turbocharged engines. We are able to design and compare engine boost system combinations, with and without a turbocharger, with and without a blowdown turbine, and with and without a WHR system, at the cycle and turbine design levels.

In our upcoming webinar, we will do just that. We will design different combinations for larger ICEs and compare the results. This webinar will also cover introductions to these systems and application examples for supplementary power production systems in the automotive and marine industries.

We hope you can attend! Register by following the link below.

Register

 

Preliminary Design Explained

Thinker- 2-26-2015Companies utilize different principles to design new turbomachinery. A design exercise is an extremely complex task and requires knowledge of many design trade-offs. This article is intended to reveal preliminary design philosophy and clarify some mysteries in this fast solution method.

Let’s define a few terms first. Boundary conditions (BCs) are the inlet and outlet states of a working fluid. Design inputs are small number of variables that are necessary to begin the design exercise. SoftInWay identifies BCs, design mass flow rate, rotational speed, and a few dimensions as the design inputs. The Preliminary design is a tool for quickly assessing design outputs giving many sets of design inputs. The algorithm utilized in the Preliminary design tool is an inverse solver. Inverse solution in this context implies finding geometry of interest knowing a very few design inputs.

How stuff works? The whole process comes down to estimating losses in each component and then calculating fluid states and component geometry applying simple kinematics and conservation equations. Calculated geometry and states are used to find real losses from loss models. This loss model results are compared with the guessed values and the algorithm repeats until they agree. In a practical implementation, however, the solution scheme will be more comprehensive but underlying principle remains the same — design output heavily relies on the models.

Loss models are extremely important and they determine the range of applicability for an industrial code. The models are collective work of many scientists and designers. Usually, they are some empirical correlations serving large family of components and predicting real machine performance quite well. Can we trust the results? That raises a lot of concerns and skepticism. The predictions are as good as the models that describe the physical processes. Verification and validation plays vital role in the developing of the code. The industry trend is to rely on published scientific data as a first iteration and calibrate models while working on real projects. Range of applicability is determined for each empirical correlation. For example, the veteran of compressor design Ronald Aungier shows that his loss model with respect to return channel in centrifugal stage has good agreement with experiment (Figure 1). Therefore, Aungier’s model can be used for similar machines.

Figure 1 -- Loss in optimized return system design

Figure 1 — Loss in optimized return system design

Preliminary design space study — know your limits! When an aerodynamicist is given specification on a new piece of machinery, he/she does not know anything about all the details of the design. Preliminary design can quickly show achievable performance for the machine, estimate critical relationship between design inputs and outputs, and facilitate in determining trends and trade-offs. Design space is a set of many preliminary designs. Because inverse solver is fast, a designer can generate thousands of designs in the matter of eye blink. Moreover, set of mathematical statements and state-of-the art aerodynamic reasoning allows outputting three dimensional geometry for each preliminary design with properly sized components. Ultimately, exploring the design space will eliminate costly mistakes prior to detailed design is carried on.

Myths and misconceptions about preliminary design. Inverse solver does not solve potential flow problem. Inverse task does not perform boundary layer analysis. Preliminary design is not a Navier-Stoks solver. Inverse design is not a table look-up but utilizes empirical loss model in the tested and verified domain. At the same time, preliminary design is not a blade-to-blade analysis tool. Preliminary design is a good starting point for further detailed design and analysis including blade profiling, performance map generation, impeller design, structural analysis, and CFD. All the above can be accomplished within one integrated design environment such AxSTREAM.

Good luck with your challenge!

IvK

References:

  • http://www.dreamstime.com/
  • Aungier R. Centrifugal Compressors. The strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis. ASME Press. New York. 2000

TBT Webinar: Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?

It’s Throwback Thursday and we are sharing another of our past webinars! This week’s is called Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?

video2

Surge and choke are inherent, sophisticated phenomena in centrifugal compressor operation. They limit the operational range of any centrifugal compressor and cause severe damage to the machine if it is in surge condition. Several books cover the development of centrifugal compressor surge and choke models that can be applied in compressor control systems in order to avoid surge and choke; while these methods focus retroactively, there are some proactive methods that can be applied during the design phase of the machine. Continue reading “TBT Webinar: Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?”

TBT Webinar – Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades

It’s Throwback Thursday which means we have another one of our favorite past webinars! This week’s is called Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades. It was the first of three in a special Steam Turbine Series

Since 1884, steam turbines have been exemplary turbomachines that have improved throughout the years with modern design advances. As steam turbines became common, the competition heated up and today efficiency continues to be a hot topic. One trending technique that makes steam turbines most efficient is advanced 3D blading. Continue reading “TBT Webinar – Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades”

POWER-GEN 2014 – What you’ll see from SoftInWay

Powergen 2014December is already upon us, which mean Power-Gen International is right around the corner. As we finalize preparations, we’d like to share a sneak peek at what we’ll be showing at this year’s conference. SoftInWay has just released a new version of its design, analysis, and optimization software. AxSTREAM V 3.3 consists of enhancements and fully new features to improve the turbomachinery design process. These updates are the result of our client requests and collaborations. Here’s a look at a partial list of the new features:

  • Users can now design radial turbines at the conceptual design phase in rotor + stator + volute configurations.
  • They can calculate the influence of the heating working fluid through the compressors walls and the option to add radial heat exchangers in the flow path.
  • AxSTREAM V 3.3 has a new fluid toolbox allowing the creation of fluid files using NIST-defined pure and mixed fluid, as well as model combustion gases using custom fuels.
  • Users can calculate both the interference diagram for various rotation speeds and the stress in sections while accounting for root, shroud, disk, lashing wires, and even splitter blades.
  • There is a new library of attachments in AxSTRESS to allow shorter design time due to existing root and the opportunity to update blade geometry while maintaining predefined attachments.

Stop by booth #4854 to learn more about these features! SoftInWay CEO, Dr. Leonid Moroz, will also be speaking at the conference on Wednesday, Dec. 10th at 1:30. He will be presenting his latest paper, “A New Concept to Designing a Combined Cycle Cogeneration Power Plant,” written with SoftInWay Director of Engineering, Dr. Boris Frolov, and Mechanical Engineer, Dr. Maksym Burlaka.

Interested in scheduling an appointment with us at Power-Gen? Contact us at info@softinway.com. We’ll see you there!

TBT Webinar – Design of Impulse and Reaction Turbines

This week’s TBT webinar, Design of Impulse and Reaction Turbines Webinar #2: Applications for Supercritical CO2 Cycle, discusses important considerations for using high-density working fluids with small turbine sizes. Structural constraints and performance are considered and the full design process is demonstrated.

video2This webinar covers:

  • Supercritical CO2 cycle overview
  • Estimation of impulse and reaction turbine application rationality in modern supercritical CO2 cycles taking into consideration structural requirements and performance goals
  • Comparison of CO2 and steam turbines (impulse and reaction) for the same boundary conditions
  • Detailed flow path design with AxSTREAM

Who should watch:

  • Mechanical and aerospace engineers working on conceptual turbine design
  • Operation/Overhaul/Engineering managers seeking to increase energy efficiency
  • Everyone interested in how SoftInWay Inc., and AxSTREAM can help them with creating more efficient Turbomachinery

You can find the recording here, in our video center. Not registered for our center? Not a problem, just register and you’ll be emailed access info for all of our free learning materials.

Power Gen 2014 is Right Around the Corner

PGIPower Generation Week is fast approaching and engineering companies throughout the world are frantically preparing. From December 7th to the 11th, over 1,400 power generation companies with 22,000 power professionals will be gathered in Orlando, Florida to exhibit their latest developments and to see what the rest of the industry is up to.

POWER-GEN International is not just a chance for companies to exhibit. The conference features more than 200 of the industry’s top speakers, upwards of 50 educational conference sessions, and variety of networking events.

SoftInWay will be at POWER GEN in booth 4854. We will be showing visitors the new AxSTREAM V 3.3 and its pool of new upgrades and capabilities. We are redefining the meaning of Turbomachinery Optimization and pushing efficiency further than previously believed possible.

Our new AxSTREAM features have grown from the needs and desires of our clients, who shape each and every one of our engineering goals. At SoftInWay, we view helping our clients as a means of improving our products and services, and continuing to better the turbomachinery industry.

Will you be at Power Gen? Stop by and see us at booth 4854!

Free Webinar: Maximizing Turbocharger Boost with Advanced Design Features

turbochargerinengineTurbochargers, nowadays, are becoming increasingly common in the internal combustion engines of automobiles in order to improve fuel economy and meet government emission regulations. A turbocharger must provide a designed increase in pressure under load condition (design point) while generating enough power at the low end (loss mass flow region). Internal combustion engine working characteristics, however, prevent a centrifugal compressor from generating enough boost at the low end when radial turbine rotational speed is low. Continue reading “Free Webinar: Maximizing Turbocharger Boost with Advanced Design Features”

Siemens to Acquire Dresser-Rand

desserIt was announced this week that Siemens, a German electronics and engineering company, has made a deal to purchase Dresser-Rand, a US-based oilfield equipment manufacturer. This agreement concludes a bidding war between Siemens and Sulzer, a Swiss pump manufacturer.

siemensThe deal, worth $7.6 billion, will give Siemens direct access to US domestic oil production, a sector currently booming from new extraction techniques like hydraulic fracturing. Houston, Texas is a primary hub for the oil industry and this location is an ideal place for Siemens to enter the growing US market. Siemens has already played a role in the US power industry, mainly with its production of gas turbines. The company is also purchasing Rolls-Royce Holdings PLC’s energy gas turbine and compressor business, including its Houston operations. Continue reading “Siemens to Acquire Dresser-Rand”