Evolution of Reverse Engineering

Introduction

In today’s intensely competitive global market, product enterprises are constantly seeking new ways to shorten lead times for new product developments that meet all customer expectations. In general, product enterprise has invested in CAD/CAM, rapid prototyping, and a range of new technologies that provide business benefits. Nowadays, reverse engineering (RE) is considered one of the technologies that provide business benefits by shortening the product development cycle [1]. Figure 1, shows how reverse engineering can close the gap between what is “as designed” and what is “actually manufactured” [1].

Product Development
Figure 1. Product Development Cycle. SOURCE: : [1]
Reverse engineering (RE) is now recognized as an important factor in the product design process which highlights inverse methods, deduction and discovery in design. In mechanical engineering, RE has evolved from capturing technical product data, and initiating the manual redesign procedure while enabling efficient concurrency benchmarking into a more elaborated process based on advanced computational models and modern digitizing technologies [2]. Today the application of RE is used to produce 3D digital models of various mechanical worn or broken parts. The main steps in any reverse engineering procedure are: sensing the geometry of the existing object; creating a 3D model; and manufacturing by using an appropriate CAD/CAM system [2]. Read More

Hans von Ohain – The Other Father of Jet Engines and the Gas Turbine

The question of who invented the jet engine is often met with two different answers, and neither is really wrong. In fact, we posed this question on our LinkedIn page, and got the same mixed results seen elsewhere.  Both Sir Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain were responsible for inventing the turbojet engine at the same time. While Dr. von Ohain knew of Sir Frank’s work, he did not draw information from, while Sir Frank was unaware that anyone else was designing a turbojet engine.  While we’ve covered Sir Frank Whittle before, today we’ll be looking at the life of Hans von Ohain, his invention of the turbojet, and his contributions to turbomachinery engineering.

Dr. Hans von Ohain
Dr. Hans von Ohain

Dr. Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain was born on December 14, 1911 in Dessau, Germany. He went to school at the University of Göttingen where he received his PhD in Physics and Aerodynamics in 1935. During his studies and following his graduation, he was captivated by  aviation and airplane propulsion, with a specific interest in developing an aircraft that did not rely on a piston-driven propeller. According to the National Aviation Hall of Fame, he “conceived the idea for jet propulsion in 1933 when he realized that the great noise and vibrations of the propeller piston engines seemed to destroy the smoothness and steadiness of flying”. (1) Read More

Modern Challenges in Aviation Propulsion Systems

Introduction

Aviation is coming into a new age of carbon free energy, similar to what is being explored with ground transportation. Currently, aviation transportation generates about 2.5% of the global CO2 emission [1]. Several countries have introduced targets to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 [2].

Many aerospace teams have joined the great engineering challenge to change the future of aviation.  With this, a number of different types of aircraft with different types of propulsion systems have been proposed.

Hybrid Propulsion System

The first step to a carbon-free propulsion system is hybrid technology. This kind of power plant increases efficiency, decreases emission of greenhouse gases and uses a traditional engine to produce electricity and electric motors to drive the fans or propellers [3].

The chemical engines operate at optimal conditions at any mode of a route. On the other hand, the electric motor is able to work in generator mode, using the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration.

Hybrid propulsion energy system
Figure 1 – Hybrid propulsion energy system

The hybrid aircraft is classified by several attributes. Using thrust devices, we will consider the two base types of propellers and fans. Read More

2020 – The Most Challenging Year in Recent Memory Comes to a Close Pt. 2

Part 1

Turbomachinery, Humanized

The SoftInWay turbomachinery blog is known for its technical breakdowns and explanations of mechanical engineering theory and practices, as well as introductions to things like rotor dynamics. This year however, the marketing team also wanted to cover some of the individuals behind the advances in turbomachinery and engineering by looking at figures like Sir Frank Whittle and Sir Charles Parsons among others.

We looked at the big picture, and why the developments of the steam and gas turbines were so crucial to mankind. In addition to the revolutionary changes in global transportation brought about by jet engines and steam turbines, we also examined the turbocharger, which has become a game changer in the automotive industry as automakers are locked in a race to improve engine performance and fuel economy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. After all, why learn the theories of mechanical engineering if not to make advances in science, technology, and society overall? Read More

2020 – The Most Challenging Year in Recent Memory Comes to a Close Pt. 1

Part 2

We’ve done it! We have reached the finish-line for 2020, and by golly did it not come soon enough. Here at SoftInWay, the trials and tribulations brought on by the events of 2020 were felt, but thanks to the support of our partners, friends and customers, we were able to close out the year strong. So what did SoftInWay do this year?

Siemens Partnership

Siemens Partnership

Right at the beginning of 2020, SoftInWay, Inc. officially entered a new partnership with Siemens Digital Industries. As SoftInWay has reigned as the turbomachinery master, we realize that turbomachinery component and system design is often part of a much greater system. As deadlines on projects become tighter, and project budgets decrease in the face of rising expenses, it has become more important than ever to have a streamlined workflow and toolset. Enter the SoftInWay/Siemens partnership. Thanks to this new enterprise, SoftInWay offers joint software solutions to mechanical engineering and turbomachinery companies. Industry standard tools like STAR-CCM+, Simcenter 3D, and NX CAD are now offered alongside the AxSTREAM platform. These gold-standard tools cover everything from component preliminary design to advanced heat transfer analysis, finite-element analysis, and CFD analysis, with results generated in a matter of hours. Read More

Modeling and Simulating Bearings/Bearing Leakages

Bearings are very important machinery components since they dominate machine performance. Almost all machines and mechanisms with a rotating part, from the smallest motor to the largest power plants, from turbomachinery to reciprocating engines, and other industrial equipment our modern society relies upon, could not function without the use of bearings in some form. If one of the bearings fail, not only do the machines stop, but the assembly line also stops, and the resulting costs may be extremely high. For this reason, every bearing manufacturer makes every effort to ensure the highest quality for each bearing and that the end user subjects the bearing to careful use and properly maintains this component.

A bearing can be defined as a machine element which supports another moving machine element (known as a journal). It permits a relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members, while carrying the loads (static and dynamic). Some consideration will show that due to the relative motion between the contact surfaces, a certain amount of power is wasted in overcoming frictional resistance. If the rubbing surfaces are in direct contact, there will be rapid wear. In order to reduce frictional resistance, wear, and in some cases to carry away the heat generated, a layer of fluid (known as lubricant) may be provided. This lubricant is used to separate the journal and bearing, which allows the moving parts to move smoothly and helps to achieve more efficient machine operation. Some of the common bearing types are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Common Types of Bearing Examples. SOURCE: [1]
Figure 1. Common Types of Bearing Examples. SOURCE: [1]
The main purpose of bearings is to prevent direct metal to metal contact between two elements that are in relative motion. This prevents friction, heat generation and ultimately, the wear and tear of parts. It also reduces the energy consumption required for moving parts. Additionally, they also transmit the load of the rotating element to the housing. This load may be axial, radial or a combination of both. Bearings also restrict the freedom of movement of moving parts to a predefined direction. With all these aspects, bearings are clearly important for the operations and the reliability of mechanical products. The right bearing can increase useful life of the machine, and enhance the machine’s overall performance. The wrong bearing can lead to premature failure, increased downtime, and increased wear and fatigue among all components of the machine. Read More

Considerations in Industrial Pump Selection

Pumps are machines that transfer liquids from suction to discharge by converting mechanical energy from a rotating impeller into what is known as head. The pressure applied to the liquid forces the fluid to flow at the required rate and to overcome frictional losses in piping, valves, fittings, and process equipment.

When it comes to pump selection, reliability and efficiency go hand-in-hand. Generally, a pump that has been selected and controlled properly for its normal operating points will operate near its best efficiency point (BEP) flow, with low forces exerted on the mechanical components and low vibration — all of which result in optimal reliability.

There are several factors like process fluid properties, end use requirements, environmental conditions, pump material, inlet conditions, and others which should be considered while selecting pumps for industrial applications. Selecting the right pump type and sizing it correctly are critical to the success of any pump application. Pumping applications include constant or variable flow rate requirements, serving single or networked loads, and consisting of open loops (nonreturn or liquid delivery) or closed loops (return systems).

Some crucial factors considered while pump selections include:

Fluid Properties: The pumping fluid properties can significantly affect the choice of pump. Key considerations include:

  • Acidity/alkalinity and chemical composition. Corrosive and acidic fluids can degrade pumps and should be considered when selecting pump materials.
  • Operating temperature: Pump materials and expansion, mechanical seal components, and packing materials need to be considered with pumped fluids that are hotter than 200°F.
  • Solids concentrations/particle sizes: When pumping abrasive liquids such as industrial slurries, selecting a pump that will not clog or fail prematurely depends on particle size, hardness, and the volumetric percentage of solids.
  • Specific gravity: It affects the energy required to lift and move the fluid and must be considered when determining pump power requirements.
  • Vapor pressure and Viscosity: Proper consideration of the fluid’s vapor pressure will help to minimize the risk of cavitation. High viscosity fluids result in reduced centrifugal pump performance and increased power requirements. It is particularly important to consider pump suction-side line losses when pumping viscous fluids.

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Materials of Construction: It is always required to check the compatibility of materials of construction with the process liquid or any other liquids the pump might encounter. The initial cost of these materials is normally the first consideration. The operational costs, replacement costs and longevity of service and repair costs will, however, determine the actual cost of the pump during its lifetime. Charts are available to check the chemical compatibility and identify the most appropriate materials of construction for the pump.

The impact of the impeller material on the life of a pump under cavitation conditions is shown in Figure 1. As an example, changing from mild steel (reliability factor of 1.0) to stainless steel (reliability factor of 4.0) would increase the impeller life from cavitation damage by a factor of four. Hard coatings, such as certain ceramics, can also increase the impeller life under cavitating conditions.

Material Cavitation Life Factors
Figure 1 Material Cavitation life factors

Pump Sizing and Performance Specifications: The desired pump discharge is needed to accurately size the piping system, determine friction head losses, construct a system curve, and select a pump and drive motor. Process requirements can be achieved by providing a constant flow rate, or by using a throttling valve or variable speed drives. Read More

Rotor Dynamics Study of 4-Stage Compressor – from Theory to Application

Rotating machines have huge and important roles in our daily life although we may rarely think about them. Steam turbines at electrical power plants rotate the electrical generator shafts which produce electricity coming into our homes and offices. Driving to or from work, the reciprocating cycle in your vehicle’s internal combustion engine results in rotation of the transmission and the wheels of vehicles, while the electric car wheel operation is a result of induction motor rotation. If you get on an airplane, rotation of the turbo reactive gas turbine engine produces the effective thrust to sustain flight by moving, compressing and throwing the gas behind the plane. We can even find the useful effects of rotation in our kitchens when we are blending the food or washing our closes.

Although these rotating machines are different, the approaches to modelling their rotor dynamics are pretty much the same, since similar processes occur in rotating parts which differ in their vibrations from the non-rotating machines.

Do you remember the example of rotating washing machine? Have you ever seen it jumping on the floor trying to squeeze out your closet? We bet you have. This is the simplest example of the increased unbalance affecting the amplitudes of machine vibrations. Washing machines are designed to experience these noticeable vibrations during their operation without breaking. But the steam turbine or compressor rotors which have the tight clearances between the impellers and the casing can not boast of that leeway. In addition to that, the excessive vibrations significantly influence the machine’s useful life due to the increased fatigue.
This is why the rotor dynamics predictions are one of the most important parts of rotating machine analyses. And although they may seem easier than comprehensive stress-strain investigations of machine components, in some cases the rotor dynamics analysis can be trickiest part.

Usually, the rotor dynamics analyses are divided into lateral and torsional stages depending on the nature of rotor response to be used. They are discussed in different types of standards (API [1], ISO [2], etc.). Let’s consider the example of the lateral vibrations of a 4 stage compressor rotor with an operational speed of 8856 rpm.

Fig. 1 - 4 Stage Compressor Rotor
Fig. 1 – 4 Stage Compressor Rotor

This rotor rotates in the 4 pad tilting, pad oil film journal bearings. The characteristics of these bearings should be determined carefully to ensure that there will not be an excessive wear, heat generation or friction in them. Read More

Considerations for Electric Aircraft Fan Design

Due to concerns about air travel’s impact on climate change, research and development into electric aircraft has been ongoing for several years. Within the last decade several startups as well as larger corporations have been developing electric or hybrid electric aircraft (Ros, 2017). The ultimate goal is to Conduct long (>500 miles), full-electric commercial flights with large aircrafts capable of carrying 100’s of passengers, but this will require at least 5-10 more years of development. Luckily, smaller electric aircraft designed for short-range flights (<500 miles) with anywhere from 1-20 passengers have already been tested successfully utilizing electric batteries, a hybrid-electric system and even a hydrogen fuel cell.  With these advances, emission-free air travel is closer than you think.

Electric Aircraft

Examples of full-electric aircraft designs include the Airbus E-Fan 1.0 and E-Fan 1.1 (Airbus Group), shown in Figure 1. These two-person aircraft utilize two ducted, variable-pitch fans, shown in Figure 2. Each fan is powered by a 30-kW electric motor. The motors are powered by several lithium-ion battery packs stored in the wings. While the aircraft only provides an hour of flight time, the batteries can recharge in approximately one hour and can be easily be swapped in and out.

Figure 1: Airbus E-Fan (Airbus Group)
Figure 1: Airbus E-Fan (Airbus Group)
Figure 2: E-Fan ducted fan (Varmin, 2014)
Figure 2: E-Fan ducted fan (Varmin, 2014)

There are several reasons besides climate change why electric aircraft should be developed from a business perspective (Figure 3). Short and mid-range regional flights make up a significant portion of all flights around the world.  The current flight range of electric aircraft is limited to these short and mid-range fights. Additionally, shorter flights spend relatively more time taking off and landing than cruising at high altitudes, which makes shorter trips less energy efficient. While short, regional flights are economically unattractive for large commercial aircraft, a smaller aircraft with less fuel consumption may provide a valuable alternative. Read More

When to Use 1D Vs. 3D Simulation

Today’s simulation and analysis (S&A) tools allow engineers to study and verify system/machine properties and visualize the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, structural, and other physical properties without having to build a physical prototype. We can perform cooling secondary flow systems analysis in a gas turbine; a detailed performance study for a supercritical CO2 turbine/compressor; predict cavitation for industry a water pump/rocket turbopump; and so many more. Products and machines are becoming more and more complex. Unfortunately, engineers only run a handful of designs through the S&A process, due to the cost associated with limited computer resources and the time required to run simulations and to create complex 3D models of designs. Furthermore, verification and certification of system designs are often done using actual hardware—a costly and time-consuming endeavor. Considering these aspects, 1D and 3D simulations are significantly important. However, engineers need to determine the trade-off between 1D and 3D simulation.

AxSTREAM and STAR-CCM
Figure 1 AxSTREAM Platform with Modules from 0D to 3D including seamless geometry import into STAR-CCM+

1D Simulation

Imagine what’s required to generate one 3D design for a gas turbine secondary cooling flow system, and multiply it by 1,000 design alternatives. Even if we were to only use conceptual CAD models, this project would require extraordinary computing power and data storage—not to mention simulation and design expertise.

And so, even with the movement to bring more cloud-based S&A tools to market, resources required for 3D modeling will still result in very few designs being extensively explored, thanks to their complexity. Detailed low-dimensional models of system behavior can provide valuable insights into system performance and function thus guiding the design process. Read More