Heat Pump Applications and Modern Design Strategies

A heat pump serves as an alternative to gas or electric boilers, relying on the production of heat. Unlike boilers, a heat pump doesn’t generate heat but extracts energy from the air, water, or ground.

Figure 1 – Example of Heat Pump Installation. Source.

Heat pumps and electric boilers both draw power from the mains electricity supply, yet heat pumps exhibit higher efficiency. This efficiency is contingent upon the conversion efficiency, measured by the Coefficient of Performance (COP), of a specific heat pump. The COP represents the ratio of heat energy received to the electricity consumed, particularly in the operation of the pump’s compressor unit. Notably, a heat pump consumes 3-6 times less electricity than an electric boiler with the same output.

Even in challenging conditions, such as an outside air temperature of -25°C, heat pumps excel in providing heating. Simultaneously, they achieve a high COP – generating 2-5 kW of heat or cold (depending on the type of heat pump) per 1 kW of electricity. This starkly contrasts the lower efficiency of gas and electric boilers.

Heat Pump Use Potential

The economic (rising energy costs) and environmental (effects of climate change) aspects of heat pumps should also be noted when discussing heat pumps. Heat pumps make it possible to utilize renewable heat resources such as geothermal, solar thermal energy and recovered heat from the urban environment. In addition, heat pumps maximize the decarbonization potential of renewable electricity sources (such as wind and solar) by converting them into renewable heat. In combination with thermal storage and electric boilers, heat pumps provide flexibility and security to the building life-support system, offering daily, weekly, and seasonal flexibility. Read More