Gas Turbine Technology in Aircraft Propulsion

[:en]It is very interesting to take a look at how gas turbine technology has made its way into aircraft propulsion and improved over time. When the idea of a turbojet was introduced by Frank Whittle and others in the 1920s, no one could have guessed that it would change the future of air propulsion. The Committee on Gas Turbines from the National Academy of Sciences reported (1940): “In its present state … the gas turbine engine could hardly be considered a feasible application to airplanes mainly because of the difficulty in complying with stringent weight requirements imposed by aeronautics” [1]. This puts into perspective the immense advancement that gas turbine development has made to be an integrated part of aircraft propulsion today.

genx-1b engine
GEnx-1B engine (first run, 2006) for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, from Airline Reporter [3].
Rolls-royce avon engine
Rolls-Royce Avon Engine (first run, 1946), from Wikipedia [2].
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A quick look at the engine characteristics reveals the great advancement in design and manufacturing of jet engines from the early turbojets to the most advanced turbofans today. For instance, General Electric’s J31, with an overall pressure ratio of 3.8:1 and maximum thrust of 1,650 lbf, was one of the first manufactured jet engines in the United States [2]. Nowadays, Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 has achieved a maximum thrust of 78,000 lbf with an overall pressure ratio of more than 50:1 [4]. Without a doubt, gas turbine technology has made a huge impact on aircraft propulsion and there will be more to come in future.

Trent 1000 engine, from Rolls-Royce [4].
Trent 1000 engine, from Rolls-Royce [4].
[1] www.MIT.edu
[2] www.Wikipedia.org
[3] www.AirlineReporter.com
[4] www.Rolls-Royce.com

 

 [:cn]It is very interesting to take a look at how gas turbine technology has made its way into aircraft propulsion and improved over time. When the idea of a turbojet was introduced by Frank Whittle and others in the 1920s, no one could have guessed that it would change the future of air propulsion. The Committee on Gas Turbines from the National Academy of Sciences reported (1940): “In its present state … the gas turbine engine could hardly be considered a feasible application to airplanes mainly because of the difficulty in complying with stringent weight requirements imposed by aeronautics” [1]. This puts into perspective the immense advancement that gas turbine development has made to be an integrated part of aircraft propulsion today.

genx-1b engine
GEnx-1B engine (first run, 2006) for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, from Airline Reporter [3].
Rolls-royce avon engine
Rolls-Royce Avon Engine (first run, 1946), from Wikipedia [2].
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A quick look at the engine characteristics reveals the great advancement in design and manufacturing of jet engines from the early turbojets to the most advanced turbofans today. For instance, General Electric’s J31, with an overall pressure ratio of 3.8:1 and maximum thrust of 1,650 lbf, was one of the first manufactured jet engines in the United States [2]. Nowadays, Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 has achieved a maximum thrust of 78,000 lbf with an overall pressure ratio of more than 50:1 [4]. Without a doubt, gas turbine technology has made a huge impact on aircraft propulsion and there will be more to come in future.

Trent 1000 engine, from Rolls-Royce [4].
Trent 1000 engine, from Rolls-Royce [4].
[1] www.MIT.edu
[2] www.Wikipedia.org
[3] www.AirlineReporter.com
[4] www.Rolls-Royce.com

 

 [:]

Power Production Does Not Have To Be So Wasteful

Whether it’s to drive you to work, power up your electronic devices, fly you to your holiday destination (extraterrestrial or not), or even set up the perfect lighting for this Valentine’s Day, your daily life requires power production. Although renewable energies are gaining popularity, many people remain unprepared to make the complete switch to these innovative power sources (except Iceland). Making the things we have more “energy efficient” or “green” has become an attractive marketing tool for many of businesses.

Presentation of the boundary conditions, unrecuperated and recuperated waste heat recovery cycles in AxCYCLE™
Presentation of the boundary conditions, unrecuperated and recuperated waste heat recovery cycles in AxCYCLE™

Continue reading “Power Production Does Not Have To Be So Wasteful”

TBT Webinar: Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?

[:en]It’s Throwback Thursday and we are sharing another of our past webinars! This week’s is called Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?

video2

Surge and choke are inherent, sophisticated phenomena in centrifugal compressor operation. They limit the operational range of any centrifugal compressor and cause severe damage to the machine if it is in surge condition. Several books cover the development of centrifugal compressor surge and choke models that can be applied in compressor control systems in order to avoid surge and choke; while these methods focus retroactively, there are some proactive methods that can be applied during the design phase of the machine. Continue reading “TBT Webinar: Centrifugal Compressor Design: Can You Really Avoid Choke and Surge?”

TBT Webinar – Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades

[:en]It’s Throwback Thursday which means we have another one of our favorite past webinars! This week’s is called Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades. It was the first of three in a special Steam Turbine Series

Since 1884, steam turbines have been exemplary turbomachines that have improved throughout the years with modern design advances. As steam turbines became common, the competition heated up and today efficiency continues to be a hot topic. One trending technique that makes steam turbines most efficient is advanced 3D blading. Continue reading “TBT Webinar – Developing Reliable, High Performance, Advanced 3D Blades”

TBT Webinar – Design of Impulse and Reaction Turbines

[:en]This week’s TBT webinar, Design of Impulse and Reaction Turbines Webinar #2: Applications for Supercritical CO2 Cycle, discusses important considerations for using high-density working fluids with small turbine sizes. Structural constraints and performance are considered and the full design process is demonstrated.

video2This webinar covers:

  • Supercritical CO2 cycle overview
  • Estimation of impulse and reaction turbine application rationality in modern supercritical CO2 cycles taking into consideration structural requirements and performance goals
  • Comparison of CO2 and steam turbines (impulse and reaction) for the same boundary conditions
  • Detailed flow path design with AxSTREAM

Who should watch:

  • Mechanical and aerospace engineers working on conceptual turbine design
  • Operation/Overhaul/Engineering managers seeking to increase energy efficiency
  • Everyone interested in how SoftInWay Inc., and AxSTREAM can help them with creating more efficient Turbomachinery

You can find the recording here, in our video center. Not registered for our center? Not a problem, just register and you’ll be emailed access info for all of our free learning materials.[:cn]This week’s TBT webinar, Design of Impulse and Reaction Turbines Webinar #2: Applications for Supercritical CO2 Cycle, discusses important considerations for using high-density working fluids with small turbine sizes. Structural constraints and performance are considered and the full design process is demonstrated.

video2This webinar covers:

  • Supercritical CO2 cycle overview
  • Estimation of impulse and reaction turbine application rationality in modern supercritical CO2 cycles taking into consideration structural requirements and performance goals
  • Comparison of CO2 and steam turbines (impulse and reaction) for the same boundary conditions
  • Detailed flow path design with AxSTREAM

Who should watch:

  • Mechanical and aerospace engineers working on conceptual turbine design
  • Operation/Overhaul/Engineering managers seeking to increase energy efficiency
  • Everyone interested in how SoftInWay Inc., and AxSTREAM can help them with creating more efficient Turbomachinery

You can find the recording here, in our video center. Not registered for our center? Not a problem, just register and you’ll be emailed access info for all of our free learning materials.[:]

Free Webinar: Maximizing Turbocharger Boost with Advanced Design Features

[:en]turbochargerinengineTurbochargers, nowadays, are becoming increasingly common in the internal combustion engines of automobiles in order to improve fuel economy and meet government emission regulations. A turbocharger must provide a designed increase in pressure under load condition (design point) while generating enough power at the low end (loss mass flow region). Internal combustion engine working characteristics, however, prevent a centrifugal compressor from generating enough boost at the low end when radial turbine rotational speed is low. Continue reading “Free Webinar: Maximizing Turbocharger Boost with Advanced Design Features”

Mini and Micro Gas Turbines

[:en]Mini and Micro gas turbines are becoming increasingly relevant among today’s research of power production technologies. These turbines are smaller, lighter, less-polluting, and less expensive than traditional power generation units. Gas turbines have high-grade waste heat, low maintenance costs, and low vibration levels. The micro versions of these turbines play a key role in micro combined heat and power (CHP) and micro power generation. Continue reading “Mini and Micro Gas Turbines”

Formula 1 Racing is Turbocharged

turbochargerinengineYes, the Formula 1 races have begun. The world is three races in with the fourth Grand Prix scheduled for April 20 in China.  As the world watches in awe at the versatility and speed (let’s face it, the races are all about the cars, right?), engineers marvel at the aerodynamics, energy recovery systems, turbochargers and internal combustion engines (because we love engineering).

Continue reading “Formula 1 Racing is Turbocharged”

Which gas turbine is the best for my combined cycle power plant conversion?

[:en]combinedcyclesThe goal of this test case is to find the gas turbine necessary to produce 58 MW of total net power for the conversion of a steam turbine to a combined gas-steam cycle while providing the highest level of cycle thermal efficiency.

The exhaust gases from the gas turbine are used to heat up steam through three HRSGs (Heat Recovery Steam Generators) in series. The steam is then used in the studied steam turbine which is comprised of two “cylinders” in series.
Continue reading “Which gas turbine is the best for my combined cycle power plant conversion?”

Radial versus Diagonal Diffusion in Multi-Stage Pumps

[:en]
radialanddiagonaldiffusion
Radial and Diagonal Diffusion

Although crossover design has only a secondary effect on pump efficiency, it too should use every available trick to achieve the best possible results.

This picture (left and below) shows short and long configurations of the two basic types of crossovers normally used on multi-stage pumps. Both have been tested by the West Coast pump companies and the results of these tests indicate that the radial diffusion type is approximately one point more efficient than the diagonal diffusion type. Here’s why: Continue reading “Radial versus Diagonal Diffusion in Multi-Stage Pumps”