Improving Turbine and Compressor Design Matching

[:en]Compressor-Turbine-MatchingOne of the most prominent steps of complete gas turbine design is turbine-compressor matching. There are three major components to a gas turbine: compressor, combustor, and turbine. Although all of the components are designed individually, each of the components needs to correspond within the same operating condition range since all are integrated into one cycle. Consequently, an optimal design of each component must fit the requirement of other component’s optimal parameters. Corresponding operating points for each component must be found at equilibrium with the engine, thus the overall performance of gas turbine can be reached within the defined range of parameters.

The idea behind component “matching” process is to find flow and work compatibility between corresponding components. Based on the mechanical constraints, gas generator speed and firing temperature of a gas turbine have limitations depending on: ambient temperature, accessory load and engine geometry. The match temperature chosen should be the ambient temperature which reach both upper limits at the same time.  Pressure ratio needed to allow a certain gas flow is also one of the most prominent parameters that has to be taken into consideration. Designers need to make sure that the gas flow through the power turbine from gas generator satisfy the pressure ratio needed for compressor power requirements. Gas generator can easily show an altered match temperature due to some conditions i.e: reduction in compressor efficiency (due to fouling, etc), change of thermodynamic properties of combustion product, gas fuel with lower or higher hearing value, etc. Match parameters of an engine could also be altered by changing the flow characteristics on the first turbine nozzle.Turbine-Compressor

Using characteristic map/curve as well as thermodynamic relationships of turbine and compressor, calculations can be performed to identify the permitted operating range. It must be taken into consideration that all calculated value must match the value from map data.

Trying to find the fastest solution for this step? SoftInWay’s turbine-compressor matching feature in AxSTREAM could help you cut engineering time and simplify the process. Combining performance maps of turbine and compressor, making it easier for the user to determine points of joints operations.

Take a look into AxSTREAM’s to learn more about this.

Reference:

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/ctmatch.html
http://cset.mnsu.edu/engagethermo/components_gasturbine.html
http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T29/t29pg247.pdf
http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3255&context=etd
Turbine Compressor Matching Compatibility Mode Document[:cn]Compressor-Turbine-MatchingOne of the most prominent steps of complete gas turbine design is turbine-compressor matching. There are three major components to a gas turbine: compressor, combustor, and turbine. Although all of the components are designed individually, each of the components needs to correspond within the same operating condition range since all are integrated into one cycle. Consequently, an optimal design of each component must fit the requirement of other component’s optimal parameters. Corresponding operating points for each component must be found at equilibrium with the engine, thus the overall performance of gas turbine can be reached within the defined range of parameters.

The idea behind component “matching” process is to find flow and work compatibility between corresponding components. Based on the mechanical constraints, gas generator speed and firing temperature of a gas turbine have limitations depending on: ambient temperature, accessory load and engine geometry. The match temperature chosen should be the ambient temperature which reach both upper limits at the same time.  Pressure ratio needed to allow a certain gas flow is also one of the most prominent parameters that has to be taken into consideration. Designers need to make sure that the gas flow through the power turbine from gas generator satisfy the pressure ratio needed for compressor power requirements. Gas generator can easily show an altered match temperature due to some conditions i.e: reduction in compressor efficiency (due to fouling, etc), change of thermodynamic properties of combustion product, gas fuel with lower or higher hearing value, etc. Match parameters of an engine could also be altered by changing the flow characteristics on the first turbine nozzle.Turbine-Compressor

Using characteristic map/curve as well as thermodynamic relationships of turbine and compressor, calculations can be performed to identify the permitted operating range. It must be taken into consideration that all calculated value must match the value from map data.

Trying to find the fastest solution for this step? SoftInWay’s turbine-compressor matching feature in AxSTREAM could help you cut engineering time and simplify the process. Combining performance maps of turbine and compressor, making it easier for the user to determine points of joints operations.

Take a look into AxSTREAM’s to learn more about this.

Reference:

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/ctmatch.html
http://cset.mnsu.edu/engagethermo/components_gasturbine.html
http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T29/t29pg247.pdf
http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3255&context=etd
Turbine Compressor Matching Compatibility Mode Document[:]

What parallels exist between traditional Gas Turbines with SCO2 turbine of the future?

[:en]At the beginning of my studying of the peculiarities of supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle I was wondering: why do scientists involved in this area state that highest temperature limit for the cycle is about 650-700 ˚C. In turn, the inlet temperature in the first stages of gas turbines handles the temperatures about 900 ˚C without cooling at similar pressure levels as for supercritical CO2 Turbines. As a result the following question rose in my mind – why the temperature magnitudes of 900 ˚C are not achievable in S-CO2 turbines?

As a next step, some investigations were performed with the aim to reveal the essence of such a temperature limit. Eventually the result was quite obvious but rather interesting. The density of S-CO2 is significantly higher than the density of combustion products at the same pressure and temperature magnitudes. This fact means that stresses at static vanes and rotating blades are significantly higher than in gas turbines vanes and blades at the same conditions. Therefore the maximum allowable temperature for S-CO2 turbine will be respectively less with the same high temperature material. However, you might say that there is another way to solve the problem with stresses, namely, increasing the chords of blades, leading edge thickness, trailing edge thickness, fillets etc. This approach would lead to such blades shape and turbine cascade configuration that their aerodynamic quality becomes very low so the gain in efficiency at cycle level will be leveled.

Interested in learning more about our research, and how using the AxSTREAM turbomachinery platform, we were able to study these phenomena?

Contact us for a chat! [:cn]At the beginning of my studying of the peculiarities of supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle I was wondering: why do scientists involved in this area state that highest temperature limit for the cycle is about 650-700 ˚C. In turn, the inlet temperature in the first stages of gas turbines handles the temperatures about 900 ˚C without cooling at similar pressure levels as for supercritical CO2 Turbines. As a result the following question rose in my mind – why the temperature magnitudes of 900 ˚C are not achievable in S-CO2 turbines?

As a next step, some investigations were performed with the aim to reveal the essence of such a temperature limit. Eventually the result was quite obvious but rather interesting. The density of S-CO2 is significantly higher than the density of combustion products at the same pressure and temperature magnitudes. This fact means that stresses at static vanes and rotating blades are significantly higher than in gas turbines vanes and blades at the same conditions. Therefore the maximum allowable temperature for S-CO2 turbine will be respectively less with the same high temperature material. However, you might say that there is another way to solve the problem with stresses, namely, increasing the chords of blades, leading edge thickness, trailing edge thickness, fillets etc. This approach would lead to such blades shape and turbine cascade configuration that their aerodynamic quality becomes very low so the gain in efficiency at cycle level will be leveled.

Interested in learning more about our research, and how using the AxSTREAM turbomachinery platform, we were able to study these phenomena?

Contact us for a chat! [:]

Explaining the Binary Power Cycle

Geothermal energy is known to be a reliable and sustainable energy source. As the world gives more attention to the state of the environment, people lean towards using more energy sources which have little to no impact on nature. Where it is true that currently no other energy source can outperform fossil fuel due to its energy concentration, geothermal energy is a good prospect as a temporary substitute until a better form of energy supply is found.

There are two types of geothermal power sources; one is known as the steam plant and the other is the Binary cycle. Binary cycles have the conceptual objectives of: high efficiency — minimizing losses; low cost to optimize component design; and critical choice of working fluid. This particular type of cycle allows cooler geothermal supply to be used, which has a huge benefit since lower temperature resources are much more common in nature.

blog - binary power1blog - binary power2

 

 

 

 

 

 

The way a binary cycle works can be explained using the diagram shown above. Since the temperature of geothermal source is not high enough to produce steam, hot water is fed into a heat exchanger. From there, secondary liquid with lower boiling water than water i.e. isobutane, absorbs the heat generated. As the steam of secondary liquid moves the turbine, electricity will then be produced. This whole process repeats in a cycle since the secondary fluid will then condense back to its liquid state and being used for the same process.

From the process described above, it can be seen that binary cycle is a self-contained cycle — ‘nothing’ goes to waste. This fact leads to the potential of having low producing cost energy source from binary power cycle. That being said, due to the lower temperature, the conversion efficiency of the geothermal heat is also considerably low. Consequently, Carnot efficiency of such process is lower than most power cycles. Large amount of heat is required to operate a binary cycle, leading to a better and larger equipment. Not only that since a bigger amount of heat energy has to be let out to the environment during the cycle, a sufficient cooling system must be installed. Although the production cost is found to be lower, the investment cost for installation would be very expensive. Then, the main question to this particular technology implementation would be how to improve the quality of production and economic feasibility?

First, one of the main aspect of binary power cycle is to overcome water imperfection as a main fluid. Consequently choosing optimal working fluid is a very essential step. Characteristic of optimal working fluids would include a high critical temperature and maximum pressure, lower triple-point temperature, sufficient condenser pressure, high vaporization enthalpy, and other properties.

Second, it was studied on multiple different events that well-optimized ORCs perform better than Kalina cycles. The type of components chosen in the cycle also affect the cycle performance quite substantially, i.e plate heat exchanger was found to perform better in an ORC cycle in the geothermal binary application compared to shell-and-tube. Addition of recuperator or turbine bleeding also have the potency to improve the overall performance of a binary cycle plant. It is important to model multiple thermodynamic cycle to make sure that the chosen one is the most optimized based on the boundary conditions. While designing ranges of thermodynamic cycles, it is common that the cycle is modeled based on ideal assumptions. For binary cycle in geothermal application, plant efficiency would be the most important parameter. In order to achieve a desired plant efficiency, both cycle efficiency and plant effectiveness should be maximized.

Additionally, pinch-point-temperature between condenser and heat exchanger is a substantial aspect to pay attention to, even the smallest change of in temperature is considered a significant change. Thus, including this parameter is a very important aspect.

This particular cycle has many potentials which haven’t been explored. Enhance the advantages of your binary power cycle using our thermodynamic tool, AxCYCLE.

Ref:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_cycle
http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/geo3.htm
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/229148932_Optimized_geothermal_binary_power_cycles

Will gas turbines be the next generation of automotive propulsion?

Almost every car produced nowadays is propelled by a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE). Fueled by gasoline or diesel, these engines have pistons inside the cylinders which move up and down, compressing and expanding the mixture. They are connected to a crankshaft that converts the movements into a rotational motion to turn the wheels that move the car.

Big engine makers are constantly researching and developing to make engines lighter, more powerful, more fuel efficient, and more environmentally friendly. But isn’t there a better way to power the automobile Industry?

After WWII, the gas turbine (GT) engine (turbojet) was a trend for aircraft propulsion. A few companies did some research and explored the idea of using a GT to power a car. The GTs mentioned here are evidently not turbojets, but turboshafts where almost any power is used from exhaust. Instead there is a power turbine activated by the combustion gases that would be connected to a gearbox and consequently to the wheels.

Figure 1 - GM Firebird II
Figure 1 – GM Firebird II

The first company to ever build a GT car was Rover in 1950 with the JET 1. A few years later GM also built a number of futuristic prototypes called the Firebirds.

While some companies came up with GT cars, it was Chrysler that invested the most in this concept, spending a lot of time and money doing R&D for almost 20 years (from 1950 to 1970).

Figure 2 - Chrysler Gas Turbine, 1962
Figure 2 – Chrysler Gas Turbine, 1962

For the first time ever in 1963, more than just a prototype came out and fifty-five cars were built and given to people to try as a daily mode of transport. Although reviews were generally good, the project did not go any further.

Figure 3 - A 831 Gas Turbine
Figure 3 – A 831 Gas Turbine

The car used the A-831 GT, a dual spool, and free shaft engine with an output of 130 horse power, weighing 410 lbs. It comprised a single stage centrifugal compressor rotating at a maximum of 44,600 rpm (CR=4:1), the air, after leaving the compressor, would go through 2 regenerators working as heat exchangers using hot gases from the exhaust to increase temperature before the combustion to reduce fuel consumption. From the combustion chamber, the gases travelled by a single stage axial turbine that activated the compressor and the accessories and posteriorly through a variable geometry power turbine nozzle, to control the amount of gas that would go through, before the free single stage axial power turbine that was connected to a Torqueflit, 3 speed automatic transmission.

Chrysler ended up destroying all but nine of the cars.  Today they are in museums or in Jay Leno’s garage.

Why didn’t a car with a well-reviewed engine and a futuristic concept stick? Why are GTs present in so many industries but not in Automotive? They’re faster, simpler, have a better power-to-weight ratio and require less maintenance.

While they have advantages, however, they also have some disadvantages. Some of the Chrysler car users mentioned a lack of engine brake, lack of support when maintenance was needed and noise. This could easily be solved, and Chrysler did fix some of this issues. What ultimately killed the project was the low throttle response in comparison to RICE and fuel consumption. GTs are very fuel efficient for high speeds with constant throttle, but cars operate at relativity low speeds with a big vary of throttle. This has a big impact in the GT fuel efficiency. Although the company tried to resolve this issue, the 1970’s oil crisis made the scenario even worse.

Figure 4 - Jaguar C-X75 GT
Figure 4 – Jaguar C-X75 GT

It’s possible that soon electric hybrid vehicles will mean the GT finally becomes a viable power source for cars. Whether braking or accelerating, the micro gas turbine runs at a relatively constant rpm and generates electricity to be stored in batteries. Those batteries are connected to electric motors (4 in the Jaguar C-X75 case, one on each wheel) that run the car. Two known prototypes are the Jaguar C-X75 using two 70kW micro turbines produced by Bladon Jets, and the Capstone CMT 380 using a single 30 kW micro gas turbine

Design Considerations in Turbochargers (Part 1 – Incidence)

A turbocharger (TC) has to provide a required pressure ratio for efficient combustion and operation of an internal combustion engine (ICE). The turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor sides on the same shaft. The turbine utilizes the energy of exhaust gases while the compressor forces the air into the engine. The compressor with a wide operating range is a strict requirement in the automotive industry because the unit has to operate across all of the ICE regimes.

Even though any compressor has a design point, the ability to operate at low and high mass flows is critical for TC compressors. To satisfy the operating range requirement, a designer tries increasing mass flow at choke and decreasing mass flow at surge. This is quite a challenge. For smaller mass flow rates, the impeller outlet and diffuser should be optimized. The choice of a vaneless diffuser is always justified by increased flow range at the cost of efficiency.

To increase the right-most mass flow limit, a designer optimizes the compressor inlet. The common practice is to design blades with large inlet metal angles. Increase in inlet angles open larger area for the flow to pass. This, in turn, leads to large incidence angles at design point. Therefore, many TC compressors are designed with large positive incidence in the design point. The incidence angle increases for every speedline going toward the surge line. Incidence distribution on a TC compressor map is shown in the figure below. It is equal to +12 deg (with respect to tangent) in the design point.

Fig. 1 Incidence on the TC compressor map
Fig. 1 Incidence on the TC compressor map

Glossary:

Blog - incidenceDesign point: An operating condition where a compressor reaches maximum efficiency

Compressor Map: Pressure versus mass flow characteristic at different rotational speeds and isoefficiency contours

Speedline: Dependence of pressure on mass flow rate for a given shaft speed

Surge: Left-most point on a compressor map for a given shaft speed

Choke: Right-most point on a compressor map for a given shaft speed

Incidence: The difference between inlet flow and metal angles. If an incidence is small, the flow has less resistance to enter the impeller.

Source: http://www.turbobygarrett.com/turbobygarrett/compressor_maps

New Release: AxCYCLE v. 4.0

[:en]We have just released the newest version of AxCYCLE, our software tool for thermodynamic cycle design and analysis. AxCYCLE 4.0 has some brand new features that will inevitably aid you in designing optimal Gas, Steam, Combined, Turbocharger, Supercritical CO2, Organic Rankine, and Waste Heat Recovery Cycles.

Take a look at the latest updates and additions:

Turbine Efficiency Calculation
In previous versions of AxCYCLE, efficiency was an input parameter that needed to be changed manually for each off-design condition. The Calculated Efficiency option will automatically recalculate the efficiency for off-design conditions.

blog - axcycle 4.0

New Components
Several new components were added to the AxCYCLE library for more sophisticated and customizable cycles.

Bearing: Used to simulate mechanical energy losses in bearings. The estimated mechanical losses are assigned as a power value and are accounted for in the total energy balance

Gearbox: Used to simulate the mechanical energy transfer between two shafts considering mechanical energy losses in the gearbox. These losses are measured using a gearbox efficiency value.

End Seal: Used to simulate seal leakage. The value of the leakage depends on the difference between the upstream and downstream pressure.

Steam Cycle Builder
AxCYCLE’s new wizard for the creation of basic steam cycles. It can be used for steam cycles with regenerative heating, optional moisture separators, and re-heaters. The Builder creates a cycle diagram with the correct fixed conditions and initial values, meaning the generated cycle is ready for calculation! It does all of the work for you!

Learn more about AxSTREAM and AxCYCLE on our website, or email us at info@softinway.com to find out exactly how we can help with your next turbomachinery project.[:cn]We have just released the newest version of AxCYCLE, our software tool for thermodynamic cycle design and analysis. AxCYCLE 4.0 has some brand new features that will inevitably aid you in designing optimal Gas, Steam, Combined, Turbocharger, Supercritical CO2, Organic Rankine, and Waste Heat Recovery Cycles.

Take a look at the latest updates and additions:

Turbine Efficiency Calculation
In previous versions of AxCYCLE, efficiency was an input parameter that needed to be changed manually for each off-design condition. The Calculated Efficiency option will automatically recalculate the efficiency for off-design conditions.

blog - axcycle 4.0

New Components
Several new components were added to the AxCYCLE library for more sophisticated and customizable cycles.

Bearing: Used to simulate mechanical energy losses in bearings. The estimated mechanical losses are assigned as a power value and are accounted for in the total energy balance

Gearbox: Used to simulate the mechanical energy transfer between two shafts considering mechanical energy losses in the gearbox. These losses are measured using a gearbox efficiency value.

End Seal: Used to simulate seal leakage. The value of the leakage depends on the difference between the upstream and downstream pressure.

Steam Cycle Builder
AxCYCLE’s new wizard for the creation of basic steam cycles. It can be used for steam cycles with regenerative heating, optional moisture separators, and re-heaters. The Builder creates a cycle diagram with the correct fixed conditions and initial values, meaning the generated cycle is ready for calculation! It does all of the work for you!

Learn more about AxSTREAM and AxCYCLE on our website, or email us at info@softinway.com to find out exactly how we can help with your next turbomachinery project.[:]

How much more can I get with what I have?

[:en]Gas turbines are continuing their trend in becoming more efficient with each generation. However, the rate at which their efficiency increases is not significant enough to match more and more constraining environmental goals and regulations. New technologies like combined cycles therefore need to be used to increase cycle-specific power (more power produced without burning additional fuel).

The first generation of combined cycles featured a bottoming steam cycle that uses the heat from the gas turbine exhausts to boil off water in order to power a turbine and generate power. This traditional approach has been around since about 1970 and nowadays allows obtaining an additional 20% in cycle thermal efficiency (40% in simple gas turbine cycle configuration vs. 60% as a combined gas-steam cycle).

Figure 1: General efficiency increases over time for simple and combined cycle gas turbines
Figure 1: General efficiency increases over time for simple and combined cycle gas turbines
Figure 2: Example of a simple, recuperated Brayton, supercritical CO2 cycle that uses the exhaust flow of a gas turbine to heat its working fluid
Figure 2: Example of a simple, recuperated Brayton, supercritical CO2 cycle that uses the exhaust flow of a gas turbine to heat its working fluid

While this traditional approach is definitely effective, it does have some drawbacks; the equipment usually takes a significant amount of 3D space, there is always the risk of corrosion and substantial structural damage when working with 2-phase fluids, and so on. This, therefore, allows for different technologies to emerge, like supercritical CO2 cycles.

A supercritical fluid is a fluid that is used above its critical pressure and temperature and therefore behaves as neither a liquid nor a gas but as a different state (high density vs gas, absence of surface tensions, etc.). As a working fluid, supercritical CO2 has numerous advantages over some other fluids, including a high safety usage, non-flammability/toxicity, high density, inexpensiveness and absence of 2-phase fluid.

 

Figure 3: Example of difference in power density between supercritical carbon dioxide (left) and steam (right) for a 10 MW power turbine
Figure 3: Example of difference in power density between supercritical carbon dioxide (left) and steam (right) for a 10 MW power turbine

Moreover, steam turbines are usually difficultly scalable to small capacities which mean that they are mostly used in a bottoming cycle configuration for high power gas turbines. On the other hand supercritical CO2 (Rankine) cycles can be used for smaller machines as well as the bigger units while featuring an efficiency comparable to the one of a typical Rankine cycle and estimated lower installation, operation and maintenance costs.

Figure 4 Cycle efficiency comparison of advanced power cycles (source: A Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Next Generation Nuclear Reactors. Dostal, V., 2004
Figure 4 Cycle efficiency comparison of advanced power cycles (source: A Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Next Generation Nuclear Reactors. Dostal, V., 2004

The paper I presented at the ASME Power & Energy 2015 compares different configurations of SCO2 bottoming cycles for an arbitrary case for different boundary conditions before applying the selected cycle to a wide range of existing gas turbine units. This allowed determining how much additional power could be generated without needing to burn additional fuel and the results were far from insignificant! For the machines studied the potential for power increase ranges from 15% to 40% of the gas turbine unit power. Want to know how much more power you can get with your existing machines? Contact us to get a quote for a feasibility study before designing the waste heat recovery system yourself or with our help.[:cn]Gas turbines are continuing their trend in becoming more efficient with each generation. However, the rate at which their efficiency increases is not significant enough to match more and more constraining environmental goals and regulations. New technologies like combined cycles therefore need to be used to increase cycle-specific power (more power produced without burning additional fuel).

The first generation of combined cycles featured a bottoming steam cycle that uses the heat from the gas turbine exhausts to boil off water in order to power a turbine and generate power. This traditional approach has been around since about 1970 and nowadays allows obtaining an additional 20% in cycle thermal efficiency (40% in simple gas turbine cycle configuration vs. 60% as a combined gas-steam cycle).

Figure 1: General efficiency increases over time for simple and combined cycle gas turbines
Figure 1: General efficiency increases over time for simple and combined cycle gas turbines
Figure 2: Example of a simple, recuperated Brayton, supercritical CO2 cycle that uses the exhaust flow of a gas turbine to heat its working fluid
Figure 2: Example of a simple, recuperated Brayton, supercritical CO2 cycle that uses the exhaust flow of a gas turbine to heat its working fluid

While this traditional approach is definitely effective, it does have some drawbacks; the equipment usually takes a significant amount of 3D space, there is always the risk of corrosion and substantial structural damage when working with 2-phase fluids, and so on. This, therefore, allows for different technologies to emerge, like supercritical CO2 cycles.

A supercritical fluid is a fluid that is used above its critical pressure and temperature and therefore behaves as neither a liquid nor a gas but as a different state (high density vs gas, absence of surface tensions, etc.). As a working fluid, supercritical CO2 has numerous advantages over some other fluids, including a high safety usage, non-flammability/toxicity, high density, inexpensiveness and absence of 2-phase fluid.

 

Figure 3: Example of difference in power density between supercritical carbon dioxide (left) and steam (right) for a 10 MW power turbine
Figure 3: Example of difference in power density between supercritical carbon dioxide (left) and steam (right) for a 10 MW power turbine

Moreover, steam turbines are usually difficultly scalable to small capacities which mean that they are mostly used in a bottoming cycle configuration for high power gas turbines. On the other hand supercritical CO2 (Rankine) cycles can be used for smaller machines as well as the bigger units while featuring an efficiency comparable to the one of a typical Rankine cycle and estimated lower installation, operation and maintenance costs.

Figure 4 Cycle efficiency comparison of advanced power cycles (source: A Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Next Generation Nuclear Reactors. Dostal, V., 2004
Figure 4 Cycle efficiency comparison of advanced power cycles (source: A Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Next Generation Nuclear Reactors. Dostal, V., 2004

The paper I presented at the ASME Power & Energy 2015 compares different configurations of SCO2 bottoming cycles for an arbitrary case for different boundary conditions before applying the selected cycle to a wide range of existing gas turbine units. This allowed determining how much additional power could be generated without needing to burn additional fuel and the results were far from insignificant! For the machines studied the potential for power increase ranges from 15% to 40% of the gas turbine unit power. Want to know how much more power you can get with your existing machines? Contact us to get a quote for a feasibility study before designing the waste heat recovery system yourself or with our help.[:]

Turbochargers in Formula 1

The history of turbochargers in Formula 1 is pretty fascinating. Turbochargers were initially introduced in 1905, applied to large diesel engines in the 1920’s and found their way into commercial automobiles in 1938. However, it took a few more decades for the turbochargers to be used in Formula 1 car racing.

When Renault decided to enter the sport in 1977, they started their engines based on the novel turbocharger concept. As one would expect, their first design suffered from constant reliability problems through all the races it competed in. As Renault focused their development entirely on the engine, the car’s aerodynamics worsened; it suffered a huge turbolag under acceleration, and when the boost finally triggered the tires were not able to handle it [1]. “So the engine broke and made everyone one laugh”, Jean-Pierre Jabouille, the driver, admitted in an interview. At the time, everyone was looking at the turbo engines as something that no one would ever hear about again.

MMR, twin turbocharged GT500 V8 engine, from Mustangs Daily [3].
MMR, twin turbocharged GT500 V8 engine, from Mustangs Daily [3].
From theJUDGE13 [2].
From theJUDGE13 [2].
 

 

 

 

 

 

Continue reading “Turbochargers in Formula 1”

Summary of the Development of Gas Turbine Industry in China

[:en]VM at china conference

On March 18th and 19th I attended a Gas Turbine conference in Beijing, China, where I had been invited as a Chairman and speaker. It was a great learning experience, with many interesting presentations involving energy and modern turbomachinery. I wanted to summarize some topics and ideas which I found particularly interesting.

  1. Supply: Projections for China through 2020 show increases in the Liquefied Natural Gas supply. This LNG will most likely stem from the new agreement between China and Russia. At the same time, still today within China, there is not enough pipe line capacity to efficiently transport it. These two factors make the price very high. In order for Gas Turbine technology to really become economically viable, there needs to be a decrease in the price of fuel, perhaps cheaper locally manufactured machines, and tax & other incentives. Today for most, it is simply a lot more expensive than traditional fossil fuel technology which accounts for more than 60% of all energy being generated today.

Continue reading “Summary of the Development of Gas Turbine Industry in China”

Innovative Boost of Larger Internal Combustion Engines

The last few decades have brought with them a dramatic increase in the development and use of turbochargers in automobiles, trains, boats, ships, and aircrafts. There are several reasons for this growth, including rising demand for fuel efficiency, stricter regulations on emissions, and advancements in turbomachinery design. Turbochargers are appearing more and more and are replacing superchargers.

turbocharger
Turbocharger

 

Turbochargers are not the only turbomachinery technology growing in popularity in the marine, automobile, and railroad industries. Organic Rankine Cycles are being applied to take advantage of the exhaust gas energy and boost engine power output. ORCs, a system for Waste Heat Recovery, improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle, train, or boat, and reduce specific emissions.

As the size of the engines we consider increases, there is more heat available to recuperate, and more potential WHR systems to use. For instance, we can consider different combinations of these systems with both non-turbocharged and turbocharged engines. We are able to design and compare engine boost system combinations, with and without a turbocharger, with and without a blowdown turbine, and with and without a WHR system, at the cycle and turbine design levels.

In our upcoming webinar, we will do just that. We will design different combinations for larger ICEs and compare the results. This webinar will also cover introductions to these systems and application examples for supplementary power production systems in the automotive and marine industries.

We hope you can attend! Register by following the link below.

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